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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

Design and government are natural allies. Both seek to serve the 
people in meeting their fullest potential and in helping the nation 
achieve its highest aspirations. 

A restructured economy, rapidly advancing technology, and increas- 
ingly diverse social and cultural environments combine to make our 
world complex and difficult to understand. Good design can bring 
clarity and order to everyday life. It is a universal presence which 
impacts everyone. 

As the federal government responds to changes in society, techno- 
logy, culture, and the economy, design can be an integral part of 
the process. It can illuminate the reinvention of our government — 
helping it operate internally more smoothly and efficiently, and mak- 
ing it more understandable and user-friendly to its citizen customers. 

Federal Design Achievement Awards illustrate some of the effective 
ways that the combination of art and science in design are serving 
both goverment and society. This year's projects demonstrate the 
strategic value of design in meeting environmental challenges, 
improving communities, educating and inspiring our citizens, solving 
human problems and advancing the cultural life of the nation. They 
are a tribute to the finest in our federal agencies and to designers 
whose vision, creativity and commitment are making government 
better able to fulfill its responsibilities to the people it serves. The 
National Endowment for the Arts is proud to honor these 77 projects 
and salute the federal agencies and designers who have improved 
the lives of so many Americans. 

Jane Alexander 


National Endowment for the Arts 



















Donlyn Lyndon, Principal, Lyndon/Buchanan Associates, Berkeley, CA 

Architecture and Interior Design 

Graham Gund (chair). President, Graham Gund Architects, Cambridge, AAA 

Beverly Russell, President, Beverly Russell Enterprises, New Paltz, NY 

Adele Naude Santos, Principal, Adele Naude Santos and Associates, Philadelphia, PA 

Dr. Sharon E. Sutton, Professor of Architecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml 

Jane Thompson, Principal, Thompson and Wood, Inc., Cambridge, MA 

Cynthia Weese, Dean, School of Architecture, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 

Amy Weinstein, Principal, Weinstein Associates, Architects, Washington, DC 

Graphic Design and pRODua/lNDUSTRiAL Design 

Richard Saul Wurman (chair), Chairman, TED Conferences, Newport, Rl 

Bryce Ambo, Principal, Bryce Ambo Graphic Design, Arlington, MA 

Robert Brunner, Director of Industrial Design, Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA 

Matthew Carter, Principal, Carter & Cone Type Inc., Cambridge, MA 

Nancye Green, Partner, Donovan & Green, New York, NY 

Richard Poulin, Principal, Richard Poulin Design Group Inc., New York, NY 

Patrick Whitney, Director, Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 

Lorraine Wild, Partner, ReVerb, Los Angeles, CA 

Landscape Architecture, Urban Design and Planning 

Everett L. Fly (chair), Principal, E.L. Fly & Associates, Inc., San Antonio, TX 

Michael Barker, Executive Director, American Planning Association, Washington, DC 

Catherine Brown, Senior Fellow, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 


Guy Nordenson (chair). Founding Principal, Ove Arup & Partners, New York, NY 

Joseph P Colaco, Partner-in-Charge, CBM Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX 

Virginia Fairweather, Editor-in-Chief, Civil Engineering, New York, NY 

Joe Passonneau, Principal, Joseph Passonneau & Partners, Washington, DC 



The Architectural Advisory Board 

Embassies are an opportunity to export the official presence and image of the United States in 
built form. Serving this purpose, the buildings should be models of architectural excellence 
that connote the optimism and values of our nation while expressing a sensitivity for the design 
traditions of the host country. To help meet these objectives, in 1954, the State Department's 
Office of Foreign Buildings Operations (FBO) created the Architectural Advisory Board (AAB). 
The board is made up of three internationally prominent American architecture practitioners 
and educators. Designers on the AAB have included Pietro Belluschi, Eero Saarinen, Charles 
Moore, Harry Weese and Thomas Beeby. Each member serves for a three-year term, and 
together their primary mission is to examine conceptual designs for new embassies and pro- 
vide design guidance to FBO and its contracted architects. 

As time has passed, this process has evolved in several ways. As a commission is initiated, 
the AAB participates in the selection of a design firm. On occasion, it offers counsel on gen- 
eral design guidelines and the appropriateness of design criteria. More routinely, it reviews 
specific building proposals, usually in two stages. A first, early meeting is devoted to the cri- 
tique of two or three alternatives for a project. A second session allows the Board to focus on 
the development of a single approach working with the architects to point out esoteric 
embassy requirements, resolve conflicts among security, the complex demands of the program 
and architectural quality, and address the unforeseen challenges that inevitably arise as a 
design matures. 

Numerous award-winning buildings and a body of work internationally acclaimed by architec- 
tural critics attest to the long-term success of the Architectural Advisory Board. It opens up a 
creative dialogue and establishes benchmarks of excellence that encourage designers to do 
their best. 


Department of State, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations 



New Orleans, LA 

A prominent example of ecologically-conscious design, this building almost disappears into 
its setting. The Barataria Environmental Education Center is a facility located in a swamp- 
land woods at the end of a boardwalk where visitors can explore the natural and cultural 
diversity of the Mississippi River delta. Facilities are organized along a central spine and 
Include a library, workshop/laboratory, amphitheater and an audio visual area, each gently 
tucked among the trees of an old pecan grove. Amplifying this closeness to nature, skylights 
and translucent roofing materials as well as walls treated as grids of windows or framed 
openings create spaces where inside and outside seem to merge. Many of the spaces are 
cooled with breezes and fans — another way visitors remain in touch with the environment. 

Massing, siting and structure are sensitively developed. By breaking the Center into multiple 
volumes, it becomes a rather unassuming background element in the landscape. It is a col- 
lection of tranquil spaces, dappled with sun and shadow, that is so thoughtfully woven into 
the forest that no major trees had to be removed to accommodate the design. Structurally, in 
an approach typical of vernacular delta architecture, the entire project and adjoining path- 
ways are lifted above the swamp on concrete columns to preserve existing drainage pat- 
terns, minimize damage to plants and animals, and elevate the floors above flood level dur- 
ing hurricanes. 

As the years pass, life of all kinds will enrich the Center. Vines will climb the columns. 
Alligators will wander underneath the pavilions. Students, teachers and Park Service staff, 
along with others with an interest in the environment, will come to learn about and observe 
this special world. 


Department of the Interior, Notional Park Service, Denver Service Center and the Jean Lofitte 
National Historical Pork and Preserve 

Eskew Filson Architects 


Daybreak Grove/Sunrise Place 

Escondido, California 

These two housing projects have a heortwarming sense of community, color and vitality. It is 
easy to imagine children running around the play areas and neighbors chatting on the patios. 
For these achievements alone, the projects merit attention. When a few additional facts — that 
these ore homes for low- and very low-Income families, and that the two- and three-bedroom 
multi-story units were built for about $50 per square foot — are added to the story, then 
Daybreak Grove and Sunrise Place stand out as extraordinary achievements. They illustrate 
the critical point that quality design is dependent on the wise use of resources rather than sim- 
ply on the quantity of resources. 

Each complex includes parking, and is close to schools, shopping and public transportation. 
Of equal importance to the single-parent families that make up the bulk of the residents, both 
groups of townhouses (thirteen in Daybreak Grove and eight in Sunrise Place) are clustered 
around nicely scaled common spaces that recall Spanish plazas and the bungalow courtyards 
of earlier Californio developments. These spaces are the heart of community interaction. 
Kitchens and outdoor terraces look on to these open areas. At Daybreak Grove, play equip- 
ment is installed here. And in both communities, the far side of the court is the location of the 
laundromat, cleverly reinterpreted on the exterior as a stepped "theater." 

On the interior, in spite of compact plans, the fownhomes boast double-height and loft spaces. 
Some have extra rooms for use by guests or as an office. Windows not only let in generous 
amounts of light but open to permit cross ventilation and breezes. These homes are not lavish, 
but they are humane and welcoming environments that nurture feelings of hope, pride and 


Department of Housing and Urban Development, Pacific/Hawoii Field Office 

North County Housing Foundation 

Davids Killory 


Focus: HOPE CENfTER FOR Advanced Technologies 
Detroit, Michigan 

The vision of Focus: HOPE Center for Advanced Technologies (CAT) was fo take an aban- 
doned fragment of an industrial city and transform it info a symbol of progress and a gateway 
info a better life. The CAT has turned a lifeless 50-year-old Ford engine plant in a section of 
Detroit where the unemployment and labor dropout rate averages 45 percent into a state-of- 
the-art computer-integrated manufacturing and learning center. Only modest changes have 
been made to the outside of the building, but the interior incorporates the latest manufacturing 
technology suited for low-volume, high-skill production. The factory floor is organized into six 
Neighborhoods composed of high-tech manufacturing cells producing one or more products. 
People and materials move through the Neighborhoods on "streets" while utilities are delivered 
via sub-floor "alleys." The visual focus of each Neighborhood is a Power Tower with services 
and mechanical equipment on the ground and third floors and a training/conference room in 

The three-story office block in front of the manufacturing floor has been remodeled to include 
an electronic library, a learning center and meeting rooms, a cafeteria and a visitors platform 
projecting info the factory. A new central stair with a large window connects the second and 
third floors and symbolically opens the factory — with its new jobs and careers — to the people 
living in the surrounding area. More pragmatically, the plant has been thoroughly insulated 
and employs a cogeneration strategy to significantly reduce energy consumption. Hands-free 
amenities such as sliding doors, ambient lighting and drinking fountains help deliver the mes- 
sage that this facility looks to the future. 

In an era when industry is moving to the suburbs, exacerbating urban sprawl and dispersing 
jobs, this project demonstrates the viability of rehabilitating older inner-city factories and com- 
munities. Focus: HOPE Center for Advanced Technologies maintains its exterior as a reminder 
of the factory that discarded the neighborhood, while inside, the dramatic design matches the 
vitality of the program and confirms the potential of its workers to contribute to this country's 
industrial rebirth. If embodiess two essential elements of any living community — continuity and 
change. In the finol analysis, the CAT is a facility that makes a profound statement about 
human empowerment. 


Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, Chicago Regional Office 

Focus: HOPE 

Smith Hinchman & Grylls Associates, Inc. 


Independence Square 
Washington, DC 

Occupying a narrow site about 1 50 feet wide, Independence Square is actually two nine- 
story offices that extend for 1 1 00 feet along the elevated Southwest Expressway. The smaller 
building is a headquarters for the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency; the larger is 
headquarters for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). On the south- 
ern, highway elevation, the facades are modulated as a sequence of simply detailed, large 
masses. On the northern side, the fenestrotion is a rich blend of multiple volumes, projecting 
bays, entry canopies, and an arcade that creates an urban, pedestrian-sensitive streetscape 
without being extravagant or jumpy. A similar palette of materials, textures and rhythms relate 
the two structures visually, but in addition to differences in size, there are unique formal ele- 
ments and variations in detail — for instance, the west end of NASA's building features a 
curved wall — that give each agency a subtle but distinct architectural identity and presence in 
the dense federal landscape of downtown Washington, DC. 

Independence Square also is remarkable for its thoughtfully scaled interior and rooftop spaces. 
Lobbies combine stone, wood and metal details, as well as art and special lighting effects, in 
ways that are simultaneously impressive and inviting. And echoing the construction of the 
arcade, a metal trellis on the roof enlivens a landscaped terrace with dramatic views of the 
Capitol and other landmarks. 

Finally, this ensemble is both practical and functional. Built by a private developer and leased 
to the GSA, construction costs were in the low to moderate range. This, however, did not 
lead to compromises in quality. Not only are the buildings aesthetically compelling, but they 
are energy efficient, fully ADA compliant, and flexible enough to accommodate future changes 
in technology and layout. 


General Services Administration, National Capital Region 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

Boston Properties, inc. 

Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, PC 


Lowell Perforamnce Paviuon 

Lowell, Massachusetfs 

This project is an wonderful example of civic architecture. With its modest scale and chaste 
detailing, the Lowell Performance Pavilion makes the point that, from a community perspective, 
good building does not have to be grand or flamboyant to be successful. A significant ele- 
ment in the fabric of an historic industrial town, the pavilion serves several purposes. Running 
140 feet along a canal, the open air structure defines a critical edge for two urban spaces, 
the canal walk on one side and Boarding House Park on the other. As a stop on the trolley 
line, it becomes a ceremonial portal. It is also a connector, a pleasant pedestrian link 
between two major park buildings. Booth Mills and the restored Boarding House. Finally, if is 
a landmark, the preferred venue for celebrations and cultural events. 

Functionally, the pavilion supports many activities, encouraging the kind of vigorous public life 
that is essential in a democratic society. Facilitating performances, the trellis incorporates the 
structure and power supply for theater lighting, sound equipment and scenery, and the park 
can be used for informal seating. As vines grow up the columns and around the arches, the 
building is a relaxing and sheltered resting place for weary tourists. And with temporary 
kiosks and booths, it is transformed into a festival marketplace. 

The way details are handled is the third strength of this design. The choice of steel as o mate- 
rial is a welcome counterpoint to the long brick facades of old industrial buildings, adding a 
sense of excitement and vitality. The pavilion offers on effective hierarchy of major and minor 
spaces. And while the framing and arched motifs recall eras past, these elements ore in no 
way sentimental and ultimately convey their contemporary roots. 


Department of the Inferior, National Pork Service 

The Lowell Historic Preservation Commission 

Brown & Rowe, Inc. 

William Rawn Associates, Architects 


Lucerne Gardens 
Boston, Massachusetts 

In spite of the need, truly creative solutions to the low-income housing problem are hard to 
come by. That is what makes Lucerne Gardens so special. In an area of Boston that 
appears abandoned and dangerous, this undertaking is a symbol of hope. And design is 
an important dimension of this message. To reinvigorate a sense of community and maintain 
the scale of the neighborhood. Lucerne Garden's 45 two- and three-bedroom units are dis- 
tributed among 1 8 residential buildings that, along with o separate community center, fill 
city blocks and reclaim the street as a place for people. The gabled roofs, clapboard sid- 
ing, dormer windows, and porches are typical details of the area. The carriage-house pro- 
file of the community center is an inviting environment for pot luck suppers, block parties and 
local celebrations such as student appreciation night. Other project amenities include a tot 
park, professional landscaping and interior finishes such as dishwashers and tiled bath- 
rooms. Overall, Lucerne Gardens conveys a sense of quality and solidity. 

This effort was realized through a partnership among private and public lenders. To contain 
costs, units were standardized and grouped together with minimum circulation in three- and 
four-story buildings. In addition, significant parts of the framing were prefabricated. All 
structures are energy efficient and were built over an 1 1 month period, in the arena of pro- 
gram and design. Lucerne Gardens was the outcome of numerous neighborhood meetings 
and citizen input. And to help assure that the development meets its social objectives, there 
is a resident services coordinator guiding families to take advantage of all possible assis- 
tance, and a program that will eventually encourage long-term cooperative ownership. 
Clearly, America needs to design and invest in more of this kind of low-income housing. 


Department of Housing and Urban Development, New England Area 
City of Boston, Public Facilities Department 


Master Faciuties Program for the Nahonal Museum of the American Indian 
Washington, DC 

Although seldom ocknowledged, design excellence is generally supported by thoughtful and 
imaginative planning. The Master Facilities Program for the National Museum of the 
American Indian is important as an outstanding example of this earliest and least understood 
stage of the design process. The document is notable for its comprehensive analysis. It 
reviews the proposed sites — new exhibition facilities to be built on the Mall in Washington, 
DC, and storage and support space on the Smithsonian campus in Suitland, Maryland. The 
program comments on the breadth and quality of the collections, explains how materials might 
be used and displayed, and proposes a detailed set of design guidelines. 

All this was achieved as a collaborative effort with expert contributions from many areas. 
Undoubtedly, the most valuable input came from Native American representatives who con- 
veyed key facts about the meaning, rituals and traditions surrounding objects in the 
Smithsonian's possession. This, in turn, led to modifications in the program. In particular, in 
the Mall facility, emphasis is placed on developing exhibits and demonstration spaces that 
show relationships among materials and cultures, rather than the comparfmentalization of 
information. At Suitland, the building is redefined as on interactive center that goes beyond 
the housing and care of collections to incorporate research and activities related to the preser- 
vation of Native American culture. And finally, a "museum without walls" — based on telecom- 
munications technology — is added to the proposal as a way to link Native Americans through- 
out the hemisphere to the Smithsonian facilities and events. 

Without this thorough investigation, critical needs of the National Museum of the American 
Indian would probably have gone undiscovered and opportunities for innovation would have 
been lost. Especially in design areas not commonly explored, this kind of creative analysis 
and planning is absolutely essential. 


Smithsonian Insitution, Office of Design and Construction 

Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Inc. 


Oakland Federal Building 
Oakland, CA 

As a single, pofenfially overwhelming project, it fakes folenf and finesse to add over 97,000 
square meters (about 1 ,000,000 square feet) of office space to a city center in a manner tfiat 
truly enfiances the urban environment. Here, a complex program that includes a courthouse 
and offices for 26 different federal agencies is divided into an ensemble of structures and 
open spaces that make major contributions to the revifalization of downtown Oakland. The 
twin, 1 8-story towers add a pleasing and distinctive profile to the skyline. An inviting land- 
scaped plaza, dramatic, glass-enclosed entrance rotunda with vistas to the adjacent 
Preservation Park, and artwork integrated throughout the design provide amenities enjoyed by 
citizens, employees, passersby and numerous visiting school groups. 

The scale of the Federal Building is appropriately monumental — a symbol of strength and dig- 
nify — incorporating elegant stone and metal details as well as fountains, frescoes and sculp- 
tures that continue a tradition of crafted construction common to government buildings from 
eras past. Interestingly, these same features, in combination with the massing of the center 
that descends from the pair of symmetrical high-rise blocks to three more relaxed four- and 
two-story pavilions, help make this Oakland landmark a better neighbor to the nearby 
Victorian residential area. This relationship also mirrors the public/private cooperation and 
respect that brought together the federal government, the city's redevelopment agency and a 
private developer as partners in a lease/purchase agreement that yielded superior quality and 
flexibility at a price competitive with the existing market for office space. 


General Services Administration, Pacific Rim Region 

City of Oakland 

Kaplan McLaughlin Diaz 


Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building 
Washington, DC 

This is a major federal building that was completed four months ahead of schedule and ten 
percent under budget. Moreover, it was built by a private developer/architect team without 
capital funds from the government and will revert to federal ownership at the end of a 30-year 
lease. Certainly these facts merit recognition. But over the long-term, the Thurgood Marshall 
Federal Judiciary Building in Washington, DC, will be remembered and honored because of 
its extraordinary planning and design. 

Located on Columbus Circle, a prominent public space hallmarked by grand fountain and a 
vista down Delaware Avenue to the Capitol, the Marshall Building, along with the City Post 
Office, frames Union Station, the Beaux Arts gateway to the nation's capital. The structure fol- 
lows the street line, creating a critical architectural edge that defines and contains the east 
side of the circle. The building exploits a contemporary vocabulary of volumes and openings 
that respectfully recalls the cadence, basic rhythms and structure of the station without becom- 
ing a pastiche of historic elements. 

Equally important is the way the building responds to the scale of its surroundings. Upper 
floors are terraced back behind a strong cornice so the building does not appear too massive 
or tall. Adjacent to the station, facades are relatively solid and highlighted with arches. Yet 
without compromising unity, near the townhouses, elevations have more glazing and are artic- 
ulated with layers of well-proportioned rectangular openings. 

The public entrance to the Marshall Building is a landscaped atrium that provides an attractive 
view for interior offices. With other employee-friendly amenities such as a daycare facility 
and a fitness center, this edifice can be cited as a model work environment. 


Architect of the Capitol 

Boston Properties, Inc. 

Edward Larrabee Barnes/John M. Y. Lee & Partners 


U.S. Border Station 
International Falls, MN 

Crossing a border can be an uncomfortable, even tense and unpleasant experience, com- 
plemented with an architecture that often reflects these grim emotions. The U.S. Border 
Station in International Falls, Minnesota, responds to this stereotype with a playful 
approach to federal architecture. Located in an industrial zone, the site features railroad 
tracks, elevated pipe lines and warehouses. And the General Services Administration man- 
date for the facility required a building "as functional as possible" constructed with materi- 
als "selected for their ability to withstand the elements." Fortunately, the designers respond- 
ed to these challenges with a blend of pragmatism, joy and finesse. 

To avoid interfering with 1 1 utility easements on the property, the station is conceived of as 
a bridge to minimize the ground level footprint. Next, to infuse the project with color and 
vitality, the architects exploit references to the American flag as a theme for building 
details. Tower elements are a deep blue accented with a regular pattern of white squares. 
The exterior of the bridge space is red with white stripes. Interiors are developed with a 
similarly bold vocabulary. And in the most literal allusion to the flag, the red and white 
stripes of the main inspection canopy wave over and symbolically shelter all who enter the 
United States as they drive through the inspection lanes. 

It is important to understand that this optimistic expression of the American experience was 
achieved within the originally strict parameters of the commission. The total cost of the pro- 
ject was slightly below budget; brightly colored surfaces are coated with durable resins 
and polymers; the entire structure is well insulated; and windows are designed to maximize 
view while keeping any heat loss to a minimum. 


General Services Administration, Great Lakes Region 

Architectural Resources, Inc. 


United States Embassy Chancery 
Muscat, Oman 

Security measures for U.S. embassies read like the program for a fortress: perimeter walls sur- 
rounding a complex must resist breach by vehicles, climbing, prying, hammering and sawing; 
access must be channeled through a minimum number of controlled entrances; only 15 per- 
cent of each exterior structural bay can be glazed; building service systems must be designed 
in parallel networks, with utilities that serve secure areas made accessible only to U.S. person- 
nel with security clearances; and the list goes on. In this context, the Chancery in Muscat, 
Oman demonstrates that it is possible to meet these stringent requirements and still create o 
facility that is both sensitive to its cultural setting and establishes a positive image for the 
United States. 

Responding to guidelines intended to ensure the Islamic character of public architecture in 
Oman, the Chancery is enriched with arched openings and colorful tile and marble details 
that give the structure an appropriate monumental profile while providing o play of human- 
scaled geometric patterns throughout the complex. Like other buildings in the hot climate, 
facades are layered so windows are shaded by loggias and have their vistas framed by piers 
and arches. The plan, with its series of courtyards and gardens, also reflects the regional 
style, creating many pleasant, even intimate, enclosed or interior spaces graced with plants 
and pools of water. In the final analysis, the Chancery respects the local traditions of the 
workers and visitors who will use the facility, without compromising the forward looking char- 
acter of its mission and the innumerable security measures essential in the contemporary politi- 
cal climate. It complements the culture of Oman but is also an architectural statement that 
expresses ideals and values beyond that context. 


Department of State, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations 
Polshek and Partners Architects 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Washington, DC 

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum represents one of those rare moments in archi- 
tecture where the stone, steel, glass and other materials involved in the fabrication of a build- 
ing are transformed into an experience that must be described as "transcendent." Here design 
becomes a bridge linking past history with present realities, linking cold and horrifying facts 
with overwhelming emotions and presenting a challenge to respect and treasure the diversity 
of humankind. 

Located on a midblock site just south of the Mall in Washington, DC, the museum's massing, 
limestone and brick facades, and references to neoclassicism are appropriate to its prominent 
location and the scale of federal buildings that surround it. On the other hand, while the 
building acknowledges its context, it also disengages itself from the institutional urban fabric. 
The east facade is hallmorked with a dramatic stone screen that moves in a great arc onto the 
sidewalk. The west facade has a plaza to welcome visitors, contrasting a grand hexagonal 
pavilion off to the side with a glimpse of the brick towers and glass-enclosed catwalks that lie 

This quality is amplified on the inferior. The entry point is the three-story Hall of Witness 
where a stair cuts into the space on a diagonal, a trussed skylight warps overhead, and 
industrial metal braces and vents disconcert without literally recreating a particular Holocaust 
site. The overall intent is clear, but those that enter are prompted to interpret this hall and the 
exhibits that unfold in the sequence of bright and dark, tall and low chambers, catwalks and 
towers that follow as personal experiences rather than a proscribed recounting of history. In 
this structure, architecture, materials and light are integral dimensions of the displays, key ele- 
ments in the museum's poignant message. The culmination of the visitor's passage is the Hall 
of Remembrance, a brood skylit hexagonal room designed for prayer and contemplation. 

Programmatically, this Holocaust memorial is much more than a museum. Approximately 25 
percent of its space is dedicated to permanent exhibits with another five percent allotted to 
temporary installations. In addition, the building houses a major research library and archives 
for scholars, a cinema and a theater, a 1 0,000 square foot conference center, an interactive 
computer learning center, classrooms and areas for impromptu discussion. In many ways it is 
truly place for learning — touching the minds, the hearts, the spirits and the souls of all those 
that pass through this very special architectural experience. 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 

Pel Cobb Freed & Partners 


Women's Rights National Historical Park Wesleyan Chapel Block 
Seneca Falls, New York 

This is a memorial that succeeds due to its restraint- rather than for high-profile design quali- 
ties. The Women's Rights National Historical Park, built around the ruins of Wesleyan 
Chapel (home of the first women's rights convention in the United States held during July 
1 848), is quietly part of the Seneca Falls fownscape, much as the chapel was when it was 
originally constructed in 1 843. The concept is to preserve the current fragmentary nature of 
the historic building as a symbol of the intermittent attention historically devoted to the strug- 
gle for the rights of women. A roof shelters the ruins and stone walls, marks the street edge 
and creates a gateway to the park. Off to the side, terraced seating and a sloped lawn 
articulate a resting place where individuals might take o moment for quiet meditotion or 
groups might gather to celebrate and continue the tradition of public dialogue that has hall- 
marked the history of this site. An additional exterior feature is a bluestone wall along the 
edge of the lawn where, as a focus for contemplation, water flows over an inscription of the 
Declaration of Sentiments — the centerpiece manifesto of the 1 848 convention. To complete 
the experience, the Village Hall that adjoins the open space is now used as a visitors and 
administrative center. 

Everything about the project is quite modest. Even its final cost was ten percent below bud- 
get. But great skill has been used to bring together elements of urban planning, architecture, 
preservation, art, landscape and interpretive design to create a powerful landmark that cap- 
tures the history of this place without sentimentally reconstructing it. In the end, those that 
pass through this park leave understanding that the struggle for women's rights is an integral 
and on-going facet of the struggle for all American rights. 


Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Denver Service Center 

Ann Wills Marshall 

Ray Kinoshita 

Robert Silman Associates 

A. E. Bye Associates, Landscape Architects 

The Stein Partnership, Architects 



The Double Arch Bridge of the Natchez Trace Parkway 
Franklin, TN 

Since the late 1930s the National Park Service has been constructing the Natchez Trace 
Parkway, a two lane roadway that runs from Nashville, Tennessee to Natchez, Mississippi. 
This roadway closely aligns with the historic Natchez Trace, the most highly traveled wilder- 
ness trail of the old Southwest. The Parkway is an unhurried connection between Natchez 
and Nashville that offers a sense of the historical significance of the Trace, while preserving 
the character and natural beauty of the surrounding landscape. The design and construction 
of the Double Arch Bridge, spanning a large valley across Tennessee Route 96 near 
Franklin, Tennessee, represents one of the final links of the 50-year parkway project. 

The major challenge of the project was to preserve and enhance the area's natural beauty 
while maintaining a high standard of economic and environmental responsibility. The pro- 
ject required an environmental sensitivity that precluded those permanent scars in the land- 
scape that typically accompany construction. The north face of the valley was deemed par- 
ticularly sensitive. Equipment could not be placed on the steep slope on this side of the val- 
ley. As it crosses the valley, the bridge would span over 1600 feet ond rise up to 155 feet 
above the valley floor. During construction, little or no interruption of the traffic on Tennessee 
Route 96 below was allowable. Overall costs, of course, had to be kept to a minimum. 

Construction on the bridge was completed on time and without claims, cost increases, or 
accidents. No permanent damage to the environment was incurred during construction. 
Traffic on Route 96 was not interrupted. The result of the project is a structure that meets all 
of the National Park Service's requirements for functionality and aesthetic appeal. The pro- 
ject proves that federal design initiatives can be creative, while emphasizing the use of cur- 
rent design and construction technology. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Eastern Federal Lands Highway 

Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, the Southeast Region and 
the Natchez Trace Parkway Visitor Center 

Figg Engineering Group 


Environmektal River Engineering on the Mississippi 

The Environmental River Engineering project was implemented in 1970 by the St. Louis District 
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to correct the lock of biodiversity in the Middle 
Mississippi River area. In the early nineteenth century, the river was narrow and deep, con- 
tained by stable banks lined with vast forests. As these forests were cleared over the course 
of the century, the banks deteriorated, the river widened and grew shallower, navigation 
became dangerous. Near the turn of the century, the Army Corps of Engineers began a bank 
stabilization program to ensure safe river traffic. The navigational structures imposed upon the 
river ensured a clear channel for shipping but severely damaged the river's ecology. 

It was the object of the Environmental River Engineering project to reverse man's destruction by 
stabilizing the river banks with navigational structures that work in harmony with the natural 
laws of the river. The river presents a dynamic and fast-changing set of conditions calling for 
a great number of specific solutions. Each navigational structure was designed individually, to 
fit specific locations along the river. Many newly designed structures were model tested 
before being installed in the river, avoiding the cost risks associated with field testing. 

Tests conducted by the Illinois and Missouri State Departments of Conservation show that the 
variety of dikes, revetments, and side channel improvements implemented over the past 20 
years of the program's history have radically improved the biological conditions along the 
Middle Mississippi. This environmental goal is being accomplished without impeding traffic 
through the main navigation channel. The project's success has led to its being adopted 
along other major river systems. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District 


Marathon Battery Superfund Site Design 
Cold Spring, NY 

At the Marathon Battery plant in Cold Springs, NY, one of the Northeast's worst hazardous 
waste sites, contamination from toxic heavy metal waste discharges threatened local resi- 
dents and a pristine Audubon wildlife sanctuary. Through the Comprehensive Environmental 
Response, Compensation, Liability Act (Superfund) the Environmental Protection Agency and 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers jointly administered and managed an effort to develop a 
cost-effective design to remediate areas contaminated by heavy metals and then to success- 
fully execute the cleanup operation. 

The project incorporated sampling; geostatistical analysis; remedial design; development of 
plans and specifications and subsequent execution of the project including dredging, dewa- 
tering, sedimentation, chemical fixation and transportation of the treated material; marsh 
restoration; and development of o long-term monitoring program to track project success. 

The Marathon Battery project took advantage of several innovative, cost-saving features. A 
sophisticated soil, water, sediment and vegetative plan, coupled with geostatistical model- 
ing, sharply reduced project scope and cost. Value engineering, a formal evaluation pro- 
cess developed for large-scale wastewater treatment projects, identified $8 million of sav- 
ings. A generic fixation technology was developed that eliminated the need for expensive 
proprietary formulas, thereby expanding competition among construction contractors and 
reducing costs. 

The Marathon Battery Superfund Site epitomizes the success of both federal and private 
sector partnerships, and interagency partnerships. This project moved forward on budget 
and schedule, achieving technical goals and objectives. The remedial design successfully 
applied innovative management, engineering and technological advances to clean up a 
hazardous waste site that threatened nearby residents and ecosystems. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District and the New York 

Environmental Protection Agency 

Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 


Point Marion Lock Cofferdam 
Point Marion, PA 

The construcfion of on entirely new lock to replace the existing 707ear-olcl Point Marion lock 
and dam facility along the Monongaheb River in Dunkard Township, Pennsylvania, would 
have entailed serious interruption of commercial river traffic over a three-year construction peri- 
od. Additionally, the construction of an entirely new lock would have involved the excavation 
of over a mile of river bank and required the relocation of portions of both a State highway 
and railroad tracks. 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, therefore, decided to integrate the new lock into the exist- 
ing lock and dam system. The new dock is located 1 feet landward, and 1 3 feet below the 
existing lock's wall and foundations. In order to prevent collapse of the old wall (and ensur- 
ing its continued use during construction of the new system) project engineers employed more 
than 500 large capacity 250-ton rock anchors to prevent the wall from sliding or overturning 
onto the excavation for the new lock. An extensive computer instrumentation system was 
implemented to continuously monitor the cofferdam for structural integrity. 

The use of the anchor and monitoring systems advanced the confidence and ability of Corps 
engineers and ensured significant cost savings. The innovative approach to design combined 
with site measurement of performance proves an excellent model for future projects. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District 

Solar Energy Research Facility 


Golden, CO 

The Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) was designed and built to help accomplish the 
National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) mission of developing renewable energy 
technologies, improving energy efficiency, advancing related science and engineering, and 
facilitating commercialization. To support NREL's mission, it was imperative to construct a 
facility that would be both an effective solar energy research laboratory and serve as a 
model of NREL ideas. 

Twelve energy saving technologies are used in the facility, resulting in significant operating 
cost savings. These technologies include daylighting, energy-efficient fluorescent lighting, 
evaporative cooling, a trombe wall, and an exhaust heat recovery system. Some of these 
technologies will pay for themselves in three years or less and represent a thirty percent 
reduction in operating costs when compared to a similar, conventionally equipped facility. 

SERF'S design also emphasizes functionality and flexibility. It incorporates three contiguous 
modules built along the natural contours of the land, each module containing an office pod 
and a laboratory pod. The laboratories are uniform and could, within a given group, be 
easily used for other purposes. Offices and laboratories are clustered for maximum synergy 
and efficiency. 

SERF uses stateof-the-art safety features in building air management and utility efficiency. 
Laboratories handling hazardous materials are grouped together and served by their own 
freight elevator and service corridor. Laboratories also have standard safety equipment such 
as eye-wash stations, showers, and chemical fume hoods. 

The philosophy behind SERF's distinctive design and energy-conserving features is one of 
devising and deploying technologies in harmony with the natural balance of ecosystems. But 
SERF represents even more — a building that delivers low life-cycle costing without expensive 
up-front expenditures. It is more than a cost-effective building with an innovative modular 
design; it is truly a laboratory of the future-one that successfully achieves our nation's goals 
for a clean environment and energy efficiency. 


Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, National Renewable Energy Laboratory 

Anderson DeBartolo Pan 


Taimadge Memorial Bridge Repiacemekt 
Savannah, GA 

The Federal Highway Adminisfration, fhe Georgia Department of Transportation, and a group 
of private design consultants engaged in a partnership to replace the old Talmadge Memorial 
Bridge. A new bridge spanning the Savannah River was necessary to provide increased 
access to the Port of Savannah by ship without limiting access to the city of Savannah by 
automobile. Horizontal and vertical clearances were established that would span local roads, 
railroad lines, Georgia Port Authority's warehouse and dock facility, the Savannah River and 
portions of the Savannah-Ogeechee canal. 

It was determined that a cable-stayed structure was the most economical solution to meet func- 
tional requirements and site restrictions. This stateof-the-art structural system has rarely been 
employed in the U.S.. Formal design guidelines had not been established for such systems. 
The unique structural system employed precast, prestressed concrete members erected in seg- 
ments, then post tensioned together. The completed bridge spans 7,500 feet with a main 
navigational passage 1 , 1 00 feet wide and 1 85 feet high. The new structure removes all 
piers from fhe river channel and provides a modern four lane highway into the City of 

The bridge meets stringent functional requirements through an inspiring level of mastery in a 
technology that is relatively new to the U.S. The bridge also acts as a powerful new gateway 
to the city of Savannah, synthesizing the best in new construction technologies into a visually 
integrated form. The project demonstrates that a bridge of a beauty equal to the best in the 
world can be made from the most pragmatic and economical elements and methods. 


Department of Tranportafion, Federal Highway Administration, Georgia Division 

Georgia Department of Transportation, Office of Bridge Design 

DRC Consultants, Inc. 

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas 


United States Naval Academy Bridge 
Annapolis, MD 

The Maryland State Highway Adminisfration and the Governor's Office of Art and Culture 
co-sponsored an international design competition to replace a low-level, structurally deficient 
draw-bridge with a new, high-level fixed bridge over the Severn River in Annapolis, 
Maryland. The jury included four bridge engineers, an architect, a landscape architect, a 
sculptor, and representatives of environmental groups, historic groups, and the local commu- 

The planned bridge was required to carry Maryland Route 450 through the Naval Academy 
grounds and over the Severn River, serving as the eastern gateway to Maryland's historic 
capital, Annapolis. The site required a structure that would suitably respect and enhance the 
historic and scenic nature of the site, while maintaining a 75-foot minimum clearance, and 
enriching the area environmentally. 

The Federal Highway Administration typically requires the preparation of at least two inde- 
pendent designs and construction bids for a bridge project of this magnitude. In view of the 
State's desire to implement the competition process, the Federal Highway Administration 
agreed to accept the winning concept from the competition and to forgo the requirement for 
alternative proposals. 

The U.S. Naval Academy Bridge is the first successful major bridge design competition pro- 
ject to reach completion in the past 100 years. It is the culmination of the extraordinary col- 
laborative efforts of federal and state agencies to involve leaders in the bridge engineering 
field and to challenge them to think in technical, economic, and aesthetic terms. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Maryland Division 

Maryland State Highway Administration 

Greiner, Inc. 




Cooper- HEWin: A Design Resource 
New York, NY 

Founded in 1 897, the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, now the Notional Design Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution, was created by the Hewitt sisters to be a visual library for students 
and workers in the decorative arts. Since that time the museum has become an important 
resource for designers and scholars throughout the world with nearly a quarter of a million 
objects in its collections. 

From March 1991 to August 1992, the Cooper-Hewitt held a marathon exhibition, 
Cooper-Hewitt: A Design Resource, which displayed close to a thousand objects. The 
exhibition represented four curatorial departments — Decorative Arts, Drawings and Prints, 
Textiles, and Wallcoverings as well as the museum's library and archives. By displaying a 
wealth of objects over an extended period of time, the exhibition narrated the history of 
the museum and demonstrated the significance of its collections. 

Using text panels at the entrance to each gallery, the curators were able to present the 
development of the philosophy behind the museum's collection. After concentrating on 
European ornamentation and decoration, the museum's focus shifted to modernism, then to 
universal design and finally to the design process. The combination of objects and text in 
Cooper-Hewitt: A Design Resource revealed the changes in the way the museum chose 
objects over the course of nearly one hundred years and emphasized its role as a national 
design resource. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hevvift, National Design Museum 

Drenttel Doyle Partners 

Kiss + Zwigard 


The Edge of the Millennium: An International Critique of Architecture, Urban Planning, PRODua 

New York, NY 

A compilation of 298 essays by architects, designers, critics, philosophers, historians, and 
design consultants from around the world. The Edge of the Millennium is a book based on the 
conviction that designers ore accountable for the effects, messages, products and cities they 
design. The breath of experience among the contributors provides a multidisciplinary cross- 
section of reflections on contemporary life, 

Developed out of a January 1 992 conference, the book asks what value the design profes- 
sions will have in the next millennium. In the spirit of the National Endowment for the Arts 
Federal Design Improvement Program, the four day, intensively speculative, conference includ- 
ed a wide range observations. A close working relationship between the book's editor at the 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum and the designer resulted in a lively and engaging 
text that is visually stimulating and coherently structured. Each section begins with an analyti- 
cal overview, and carefully chosen images complement the text throughout the book. 

Enhancing the international influence of the Cooper-Hewitt, and anticipating many of the 
issues which will confront us at the turn of the century. The Edge of the Millennium stresses the 
importance of design in shaping the civic realm, and has proven to be popular among stu- 
dents, design professionals, cultural historians and all those interested in design. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 



Exhibition Catalogue for Carlos Collazo 1 956-1 990 Exposicion Homenaje 
San Juan, PR 

Carlos Collazo was a Puerto Rican painter, ceramist, and graphic designer who died of AIDS 
at the age of 34. Designed for people without access to the artist's work, or his contribution 
to our society, Exhibition Catalogue for Carlos Collazo 1956-1990 Exposicion Homenaje is 
a unique contribution to the history of art in Puerto Rico. 

Reflecting the social and artistic context of the artist, the catalogue incorporates traditional oral 
history with theoretical background. The initial investigation and documentation of the artist's 
work, as well as biographic material had to be assembled by the designer. By moking the 
investigation of the artist as through as possible, the catalogue can be used as a reference for 
further studies. 

Limited to an edition of 1,000 copies, the catalogue utilizes a riveted binding to withstand 
intensive library use. By establishing different levels of discussion within the format, the text 
mirrors the artists' ability to work in different disciplines. To navigate the material, the design- 
ers have created a unique system of iconography and because the artist's work is displayed 
chronologically, the reader can see how if changed after he was diagnosed as HIV positive. 

With a scarcity of books on Puertorrician art. Exhibition Catalogue for Carlos Collazo 1 956- 
1990 Exposicion Homenaje is an opportunity for the public to better understand the artist's 
work and his relationship to our society. 


National Endowment for the Arts, Museum Program 

Instituto de Cultura Puertorriquena 


Exploring Maps Teaching Packet 

Based on the history of cartography, the Exploring Maps Teaching Packet was designed to 
accompany the USGS traveling exhibit Visual Geography. The poster and teaching modules 
are interdisciplinary and can be used for high school classes in geography, English, science, 
math history and world studies classes. 

The two posters form a ten-foot timeline of maps from prehistoric times to the space age. The 
back of the posters includes two timelines, one with literary excerpts on mapping, exploration, 
and geography. The other is a blank timelinethat students can use to complete their own top- 
ics. Each panel on the back of the poster is in 8 1/2 x 11 format for easy reproduction. 

One of the missions of the USGS National Mapping Division is to provide educational out- 
reach that relates to earth science and mapping information. Staff from the National 
Mapping Division consulted on content and organized the permissions necessary for image 
reproduction. The maps were developed in consultation with geography teachers and the 
National Council for Geographic Education. 

The federal government is one of the largest producers of maps in the world, and the art and 
science of cartography — a unique expression of culture — are being recognized in exhibitions 
at museums like the Smithsonian Institution and the Museum of Modern Art. 


Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division 



FDA Food Label Design 

One of the central problems of grapfiic design is how fo creote o design which expedites the 
understanding of information. Rarely has there been a more formidable federal design chal- 
lenge than the redesigning of the nutrition labeling for package foods mandated by the 
Nutrition and Labeling Act of 1990. The responsibility for the new labeling system fell to the 
Food and Drug Administration, the branch of the Department of Health and Human Services 
which regulates this kind of nutritional information. 

The design had to attract the attention of an enormously diverse target audience, as it compet- 
ed with the dramatic design of the product's package, in a severely restricted amount of 
space. After a three-year design process including the study of designs from other countries, 
numerous public hearings, over 1,200 consumer interviews, and the analysis of more than 
40,000 comments, the FDA created a new standard for package food design including the 
new Nutrition Facts label. 

By introducing a new nutrition fool colled "daily value" in conjunction with a carefully chosen 
set of rules and typefaces, the new labels let consumers quickly and easily assess the amount 
of a particular ingredient as it relates to their overall daily diet. The FDA estimates that as 
much as $27 billion will be saved over the next 20 years as the result of Americans making 
better choices about their diets. 


Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration 

Greenfield/Belser Ltd. 


FDIC Employee Handbook 

Created in 1933, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation determines the safety and 
soundness of banks while solving the problems created when these institutions become insol- 
vent. To meet the demands of their work, FDIC employees must be familiar with how the cor- 
poration is organized, and how it preforms its various functions. The redesigned FDIC 
Employee Handbook focuses on these employee needs. 

The new handbook provides information about administrative and employment issues for both 
new and current employees, helping them integrate into the FDIC work environment. Because 
FDIC employees are given a number of publications during any given year, it was essential 
to design a document that would be well organized and easy to use. Breaking the topics 
into individual section areas met this demand and improved the manual's role as a valuable 
reference guide. 

The poor reception of the previous version of the Handbook led to a rethinking of the entire 
document. Using an album format and a distinct pallet of cool tints, the designer has created 
an engaging and inviting publication. By carefully editing the content of the manual, the 
FDIC staff has eliminated language that would date the material, making the handbook a 
guide which will be useful for several years. The design also facilitates any updates required 
by subsequent editions. 


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of Corporate Services, Design Unit 


History of American Agriculture Poster 

By detailing significant events in the development of American agriculture according to sub- 
ject, A History of American Agriculture, 1776-1990, illustrates the evolution of U.S. agricul- 
ture in one accurate, attractive sweep. The poster, designed for both students and the general 
public, uses a timeline structure to present a decade by decade account of developments in 
areas such as economic cycles, farm machinery and technology and agricultural trade. 

Based on a popular timeline poster published in 1976, the research was assembled, edited 
and prepared by the Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service. The poster 
includes analysis of agriculture, economic and social science information, revealing the intri- 
cate developments of American agricultural history. 

Given the problem of attracting the audience's attention while describing a number of subjects 
simultaneously, A History of American Agriculture, 1776-1990 displays a vast amount of infor- 
mation logically and aesthetically. The designers, taking advantage of electronic design 
capabilities, expedited the project by using a working poster at 50 percent of the final size. 

Public response to the poster has been overwhelming, with sales surpassing those of all other 
Economic Research Service publications and the department's Agriculture in the Classroom 
program is adopting the poster for distribution. 


Department of Agriculture, Economic Reseorch Service 

Chaparos Productions Ltd. 


IRS Customer Service Guide 

The IRS Customer Service Guide is the culmination of extensive efforts by the IRS to develop 
on easy to use job aid for taxpayer assistors who onswer millions of taxpayer questions every 
year. Developed over a period of years, the guide is technically accurate, easy to under- 
stand, and logically designed. 

Originally an unwieldy, ten pound loose-leaf binder, the professional appearance of the 
guide belies its ability to withstand the duress of daily use. Changes in the guide's accent 
color reflect yearly revisions, while the use of crack-and -peel sheets allows for updates dur- 
ing the year. 

Designed for optimum use in a limited workspace, the guide uses typographic and color 
coded indicators to help the assistors provide accurate and consistent answers to taxpayers' 

Before the guide was developed, the assistor had no standard tool from which to work. 
User participation was an essential part of the design process, in the form of focus groups, 
special testing, surveys, and questionnaires. Limiting topics to one page wherever possible 
and providing enough space for the assistor to add comments expedites finding the correct 

The new IRS Customer Service Guide has resulted in a more productive assistor, better public 
relations, more accurate and consistent answers. In 1988, the national accuracy rate for 
technical and procedurol questions was 52 percent. By 1994, however, the accuracy rate 
had risen to 91 percent. In testimony before Congress, the General Accounting Office credit- 
ed the new guide for the improvement in accuracy. 


Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, Taxpayer Services 

Cox & Associates, Inc. 


Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office 
New York, NY 

Mechanical Brides: Women and Machine from Home to Office, an exhibition at the Cooper- 
Hewitt, National Design Museum, critically examined the ways in which people use design 
to meet practical needs and create cultural identities. Linking the history of design and tech- 
nology with contemporary research in cultural studies, women's history and sociology, the 
exhibition's thesis stated that seemingly neutral objects are central to the cultural definition of 
women's roles. 

The curators of the exhibit were faced with the challenge of juxtaposing three-dimensional 
objects and media images to illustrate the story of women in the ideal American home and 
office. By examining design from the users' perspective rather than concentrating on produc- 
tion or aesthetic values, the curators successfully reached a wider audience without compro- 
mising the museum's intellectuol integrity. 

The exhibition was divided into three basic sections: the home, the office, and the telephone 
which linked the two. By presenting the material in a concise manner and in a number of 
media, the displays provided a number ways for the visitors to enter the exhibit. Using the 
techniques of modern advertising and environmental graphics, the exhibition stimulated 
thought and conversation. 

Mechanical Brides: Women and Machine from Home to Office gave a vivid, accessible 
form to the body of feminist scholarship that has been produced on women, work, and 
design. By linking objects with media images and experiences of users, the exhibition 
demonstrated the cultural life of industrial design. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, Notional Design Museum 

Boym Design Studio 

Design Writing Research 


Mission to Plambt Earth Posters 

The result of a collaboration between the Corcoran School of Art and NASA, the Mission to 
Planet Earth poster series highlights the environmentally important images of earth collected by 
both satellite platforms and the space shuttle. The posters use visually striking images to exam- 
ine global changes — El Nino, the Ozone layer, the Biosphere, Global Warming, Polar ice. 
Clouds, and volcanos — currently being discussed in Earth science debates. 

Designed to communicate a visual understanding of the Earth sciences through remote sensing 
data images, diagrams, and text, the posters allow the reader to view the issues surrounding 
a given problem in their entirety. While one side of the poster diagrams a core scientific con- 
cept, the other details why it is being studied from space. The poster format also allows the 
images to be large enough to reveal important details. 

The project itself offered the rare opportunity for design students to work with scientists from 
both the Goddard Space Center and NASA headquarters and achieve a high standard in 
visual communications. The Mission to Planet Earth series bridges the gap between technical- 
ly complex information and the general public, explaining why it is so important to study earth 
from space. 


National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mission to Planet Earth Office 

Corcoran School of Art, Graphic Design Department 


Modernism at Mid-Century: The ARCHrrEcruRE of the United States Air Force Academy 

The design and construction of the Air Force Academy represents one of the federal govern- 
ment's largest and most important postwar architectural projects. A through and unique case 
study of the relationship between the federal government and the design community, 
Modernism at Mid-Century documents the complex story of the Academy, and how it relates 
to architectural, military and post war history. 

The layout, punctuated with photographs and drawings, provides a coherent and ordered for- 
mat for the vast amount of information covered by the book's authors. The designers adopted 
a system of four typefaces set against a broad interior margin to give form to the material. 
Two and three page sidebars are set against a grey background, making them easy to distin- 
guish from the larger essays. 

The designers' visual acuity reflects their genuine interest in the topic. Because so much of the 
book is a discussion of the international style, the layout had to provide a sympathetic means 
of presentation. While it would have been logical to adopt a graphic style contemporary with 
the international style, the designers have used a contemporary format which works with, 
rather than against, the interpretive voice of the text. 

Beyond the initial public reaction to the design of the Air Force Academy, little has been writ- 
ten about this significant federal design project. By presenting this material in a clear and bal- 
anced format, the designers hove ensured that Modernism at Mid-Century will stand as an 
exceptional example for other projects aimed at preserving our national design history. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Air Force Academy, Department of Civil Engineering 

The University of Chicago Press 



Packaging the New: Design and the American Consumer 1 925 - 1 975 
New York, NY 

Examining the evolution of consumer culture in America, the Packaging the New: Design and 
the American Consumer 1925-1975 exhibition at the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design 
Museum provoked visitors to think about the objects they buy and why they buy them. The 
exhibition brought the relationship between the designer, the advertiser and the consumer into 
focus and explored the results of forty years of consumer consumption in America. 

Beginning In the Great Depression, the profession of industrial designer quickly joined forces 
with manufacturers and advertisers to stimulate the economy. By introducing new products 
which were made to entice consumers to buy their way to a better life, designers like 
Raymond Lowey, Walter Dowin league, Henry Dryfuss, Norman Bel Geddes and Donald 
Desky introduced style as the driving force behind consumerism. 

The exhibition, divided into galleries, took advantage of existing exhibition cases and stock 
materials to economically create a space which related to the decade represented. Because 
theCooper-Hewitt is located in a 1903 neo-Georgian mansion, the designers had the addi- 
tional challenge of configuring the spaces to prevent the elaborate woodwork and ornamenta- 
tion of the mansion from competing with the exhibit. 

Walking through the corridors of Packaging the New: Design and the American Consumer 
1925-1975 visitors had the opportunity to see how they participated in America's obsession 
with newness and examine the the persuasive power of design. 


Smithsonain Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, Notional Design Museum 

Alexander Isley Design 

Boym Design Studio 


Planetary Maps Poster 

Planetary mapping by remote sensing has played an integral role in the development of 
current environmental mapping and global change studies, yet the planetary mapping pro- 
gram of the United States Geological Survey, which has its origins in the Apollo Space 
Program, remains obscure. By describing the types of planetary maps available from the 
USGS, the Planetary Maps Poster both outlines the history of planetary mapping and details 
current uses of remote sensing techniques. 

Working closely with the federal employees who served as managers, writers and editors for 
the project, the designers have created an information resource immediately appealing to an 
educational audience. The scope of the information in the poster demanded extreme care in 
layout and design as complex subjects such as extraterrestrial topography and mapping the 
solar system were presented. 

By using the history of planetary exploration as a basis for the poster, the designers have 
made the material available to a wider curriculum. The Planetary Maps Poster includes infor- 
mation on the technologies used in developing the maps, as well as describing the planets of 
our solar system in minute detail. 

Among the most stunning graphics supported by the American public, the USGS Planetary 
Mops display both technical sophistication and visual grandeur. The popularity of the poster 
has brought a relatively unknown national resource to the attention of the American public. 


Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division and the Mapping 
Applications Center 

Chaparos Productions Ltd. 


The Power of Maps 
New York, NY 

Demonstrating the importance of maps as a form of visual information design, tfie Power of 
Maps exhiibition at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum also revealed the particular 
points of view and specific interests behind the creation maps. By providing a critical reading 
of the process behind map design, the exhibition examined the selective process behind the 
way in which maps ore constructed. 

The exhibition arranged more than 300 maps, ancient to modern, into thematic groups. By 
coordinating the maps with printed materials as well as a video, computer mapping software 
and o Map Resource room, the curators were able to reinforce the exhibition's message. 
Current mapping projects were included to show how maps can be used to shape public 
opinion on environmental, health, and urban issues. 

By using a wide variety of maps and related materials. The Power of Maps appealed to a 
wide audience. The exhibition's achievement can be measured not only in the media cover- 
age and critical success but in the presentation of an expanded version of the exhibition at the 
International Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Smithsonain Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 



Produce for ViaoRv: Posters on the American Home Front, 1 941 -1 945 

Designed for display in small rural communities, Produce for Victory: Posters on the American 
Home Front, 1941-1945 was a response to the Congressional mandate to reach out to previ- 
ously neglected audiences in America. The low cost, lightweight display is engaging, intellec- 
tually rewarding, and sets a new standard for traveling exhibits. 

Using design parameters developed by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(SITES), the Smithsonion's Office of Exhibits Central created a display with the look of a 
Smithsonian product and the advantages of a trade-show exhibit. The show is durable, 
portable, and at the same time elegant and clean. 

The exhibit consists of fifty panels, fifty-five connectors, and a banner thafships in six wheeled 
crates. Construction drawings — including isometric, plan and elevation views — show the 
exhibitor how to install the displays. The graphics include color reproductions of original 
vintage posters, as well as black and white photographs and World War II objects. 

Produce for Victory: Posters on the American Home Front, 1941-1945 involved the exhibitors 
in all aspects of the project, from the choice of topic to final design. The result is a blueprint 
for future exhibits in the same format, three of which are currently being developed by the 
Smithsonian's Office of Exhibits Central. 


Smithsonian Institution, Office of Exhibits Central 


PuBUCATioN Design at the Nahonal Gallery of Art: A Selection 
Washington, DC 

In helping to carry out the mission of the National Gallery of Art and support the gallery's pro- 
grams, the publications of the National Gallery of Art disseminate information to the general 
public, provide faithful color reproduction of an artist's work, contribute to scholarly research, 
and serve as a record of the gallery's temporary exhibitions and permanent collections. 
Publication design at the National Gallery of Art: A Selection documents how the gallery has 
committed itself to the advancement of design standards. 

Within the restrictions of tight deadlines and limited budgets, the National Gallery of Art pro- 
duces twenty to twenty-five major publications every year. A sample taken from works printed 
during the last four years illustrates the gallery's commitment to producing printed materials that 
are appropriate to to the works of art they exhibit. Carefully considering each element of the 
design as it relates to a specific group of objects, the gallery brings together word and image 
in a clear and interesting manner. 

Constantly working to improve the publication process, the gallery has significantly updated 
their electronic publishing capabilities, resulting in increased efficiency, improved quality con- 
trol, and significant cost savings. Publications continue to be completed on time and within 
budget. The success of the gallery's work can be measured in high catalogue soles, excellent 
teacher evaluations and positive reviews from the press and the gallery's many visitors. 


National Galler/ of Art, Editors Office 

Design Pur 

Bruce Campbell Design 

Three Communication Design 

Grafik Communications, Ltd. 


Revolution, Life and Labor: Soviet Porcelain 
New York, NY 

The Ludmilb and Henry Shapiro collection of Soviet Propaganda porcelains, housed at the 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, is the only one of its kind in the United States. 
Consisting of two hundred and fifty plates, vessels and figurines, the collection brilliantly 
documents the major themes and motifs important to Soviet design between 1917 and the 
mid 1980's. 

In 1 992, the Cooper-Hewitt introduced the Shapiro collection to the American public with an 
exhibition. Revolution, Life, and Labor: Soviet Porcelains 1918-1985. As a companion to the 
exhibition, a catalogue featuring some of the most important pieces from the collection also 
was published. The research for this catalogue was done by the exhibit's curator and col- 
leagues in Russia and represents a significant cooperative effort in the study of Soviet design. 

Because the budget of the catalogue would not allow for every piece to be illustrated in color, 
the curator, designer, and printer worked closely together to design a catalogue, with a limit- 
ed use of color, which conveys the strength and importance of the porcelains. An introductory 
essay provides historical background for the porcelains and discusses their artistic, social and 
political significance. 

The historic nature of the material in Revolution, Life, and Labor: Soviet Porcelains 1918- 
1985, its political significance, and its artistic strength are shown without compromise and 
reflect the achievement of everyone involved in the design of the catalogue. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, Notional Design Museum 



A Royal Gift: The 1 862 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet 
New York, NY 

The goal of the exhibition A Royal Gift: The 1 862 Porcelain Jewel Cobinet was to focus on 
one extraordinary object from the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum's permanent col- 
lection. By inviting visitors to enjoy the aesthetic experience of the jewel cabinet and related 
objects, the curators have presented a fascinating study of both the cabinet and the design 
process that produced it. 

The central object in the exhibit was a six-foot-tall jewelry cabinet made at the Sevres factory 
in Paris during the 1 820s. Presented by King Charles X of France as a state gift to King 
Francis I of the two Sicilies, the cabinet is composed almost entirely of large painted porcelain 
plaques held in an ornate gilt-bronze framework. The exhibition also included forty other 
objects, all made in Paris during the 1820s ranging from porcelain table wares, silk textiles, 
wallpapers and fashion prints, to jewelry, buttons and fans . 

The exhibition focused on four main avenues of design exploration for the cabinet; Historic 
Context, Craftsmanship, Function and Fashion, and Image and Interpretation. The cabinet and 
other objects were arranged thematically around these topics. A central, faceted kiosk present- 
ed introductory information using both text and images. 

A Royal Gift: The 1 862 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet included a free handout composed of a post- 
card size box that opens to reveal six cards, each illustrating a part of the cabinet on one 
side and a written description on the other. This type of small, inexpensive, in- house exhibi- 
tion featuringthe Cooper-Hewitt's collections serves as a model for future programs. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Carbone Smolan Associates 



Washington, DC 

Given the mission of bringing o *befter understanding of basic spider biology and spiders' 
indispensable role in maintaining our ecosystem" to the American public, the designers of the 
National Museum of Natural History's SPIDERS! exhibit were faced with a big challenge. 
Using visual and participatory design elements, they succeeded in creating o playful and dig- 
nified entreaty for spiders and their impact on the environment. 

Designed as a 5,500 square foot traveling exhibit, SPIDERS! had to last through ten venues 
and anticipate the problems associated with transportation by truck. The exhibit withstood not 
only the demands of moving from site to site but the traffic of 800,000 visitors over the course 
of six months at the Museum of Natural History. 

The design team brought text, visuals and interactive displays together in a meaningful way. 
While not overwhelming to the average visitor, the material was scientifically accurate and 
presented the dangers spiders can pose to human beings, as well as the harm done by an 
unreasonable fear of these insects. 

The exhibit breaks with the tradition of didactic natural history displays and presents its subject 
in an upbeat but serious tone. The designers of SPIDERS! took special interest in appealing to 
younger visitors, and a companion "Spider Lab" — a staffed, hands-on exhibit area — was 
especially designed for children under the age of 1 2. 


Smithsonian Institution, Office of Exhibits Central 


United States HaocAUST Memorial Museum Artifao Posters 
Washington, DC 

The Holocaust Museum's primary mission, as a national educational institution, is to educate 
the American public about the history of the Holocaust and its implications. Using materials 
supplied by the museum, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Artifact Posters pre- 
sent a wealth of information on the complicated issues relating to the history of the Holocaust 
and provide an important new resource for study. 

The goal of the project was to create materials that could be used as supplements to a fully 
developed curriculum. Designed for a broad range of students — from middle school to the col- 
lege level — this set of nine posters provides unique background information on the Holocaust 
using artifacts, documents, and photographs from the museum's collection. 

Additional materials include a set of caption cards and a teachers guide. Carefully designed 
to complement each other and promote student inquiry, the additional materials provide histori- 
cal background, suggestions for further readings, and questions for classroom discussions. 

Successful design is often the result of interdisciplinary collaboration. In this case, the project 
began with input from teachers as to what format would be most appropriate to present 
specific themes from the Holocaust. After the poster format was chosen, the designers worked 
closely with experts and researchers on the museum staff, ollowing them to use the most 
appropriate and effective materials for the posters. 

By making the resources of the Holocaust Museum available to students across the country, 
these posters have made a significant contribution to design. While the Holocaust Museum 
may be physically grounded in Washington, DC, the lessons it contains are not. 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Education Department 

Pat Taylor, Inc. 

Adina Conn & Associates 


United States HaocAUST Memorial Museum Permanent Exhibition Design 
Washington, DC 

The most difficult task of tfie design witfiin the Holocaust Museum was to engage visitors in the 
subject matter. The exhibition designers had to avoid pitfalls such as sensationalizing or trivial- 
izing the subject without upsetting or lecturing the visitors. The success of the museum can be 
measured by the public's reaction to it. During the first year, 1 .3 million people visited the per- 
manent collection staying for three hours, twice the average museum visit. 

Focusing on individuals within the larger context of the Holocaust, the designers have created 
a restrained presentation, taking into account individual tolerance levels, and limiting younger 
visitors from overwhelming experiences. Within this context, the designers successfully integrat- 
ed 2,500 photographs, 1,000 artifacts, 53 video monitors, 30 interactive stations, and three 
video projection theaters. 

Due to scheduling constraints, the entire project was completed in half the usual time. 
Coordinating with the architect allowed the exhibition designers to modify the architectural 
space even after the construction drawings were complete. Design development and fabrica- 
tion also overlapped with approximately 200 square feet designed every three weeks and 
built within the following two months. 

By confronting moral issues in American history and creating a new paradigm for museums 
which integrate architecture and exhibits into a total experience, the museum has significantly 
advanced design. Already a number of cultural history facilities dealing with issues of ethics 
and values, using the model of a storytelling walk-through, have emerged across the country. 

The close working relationship between the museum designers and the United States 
Holocaust Memorial Council, the federal organization resulting from the legislation authorizing 
the museum, allowed the designers to work through several difficult agendas. The result was 
the unusually rapid development of a remarkably successful federal design project. 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 

Ralph Applebaum Associates Incorporated 


Prisoners of Tiaae Report 

On January 30, 1991, Senator Jeff Bingaman of New Mexico introduced legislation to 
create a National Education Commission on Time and Learning. On June 27, 1991 the 
Education Council Act of 1991 was signed into law. The following April the Commission 
began the work which culminated in the report, Prisoners of Time. 

Visually compelling, the designers created a report which goes well beyond the standard 
white paper format typically used for this kind of document. By turning abstract concepts into 
effective visuals, the report, which deals with the time constraints put on students as they learn, 
has reached a broad and diverse audience. 

Taking advantage of current electronic communication, imaging, and printing technologies, the 
report was produced in an efficient, cost-effective manner, allowing the commission to 
understand exactly how the report would appear, before it had been sent to the printer.. 

The success of the report can be measured in the breath of its circulation. Distributed widely 
throughout the United States, the report has also been sent to France, Germany and Japan. 
More than 2000 articles about the report have oppeared since its publication including 
articles in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. 


Department of Education, National Education Commission on Time and Learning 

Carter/Cosgrove and Company 



Byron White United States Courthouse 
Denver, Colorado 

The preservation of the federal courthouse/post office in Denver illustrates a strategy that com- 
bines a deep respect for the past with the thoughtful integration of totally new uses. This 
Beaux Arts monument was completed in 1916 to house the District and Appellate Courts, the 
main Denver Post Office and all other federal agencies in Denver. While the interior was 
inevitably eclectic, the exterior was clad in marble and boasted a front facade with a portico 
composed of 1 6 three-story ionic columns with American eagles spreading their wings over 
each scroll of the capitals. Due to a series of "remodelings" in the 1950s and 1960s, much 
of this grandeur was lost. A massive shed was constructed along one side of the building for 
cooling towers, hung ceilings were installed in many spaces, and large rooms were parti- 
tioned into smaller offices. By 1966, all courtroom functions had been relocated to other 
facilities and the post office took ownership of the entire building. 

Only in 1988 — ot the urging of a Judges' Restoration Committee — was the structure rescued 
from its pragmatic demise through re-acquisition by the General Services Administration for the 
sole use of the federal courts. In this renaissance, building systems were replaced, and the 
exterior and certain public rooms were restored to their former elegance, in a rehabilitation/ 
redesign component of the program, several brand new spaces were added to the interior. 

On August 10, 1994, the building was rededicated as the Byron White United States 
Courthouse. With a new name and new life, it exemplifies an innovative model for preserv- 
ing this country's important legacy of distinguished federal buildings, while updating them to 
contemporary uses. 


General Services Administration, Rocky Mountain Region 

Michael Barber Architecture 


Rehabiutation of the Old State House 
Boston, Massachusefts 

Constructed in 171 3, this building is a small jewel of Massachusetts and American history 
that has survived numerous transformations. Originally the seat of colonial government, the 
Old State House has served as city holl, commercial center, and the venue for state govern- 
ment. Its charred roof beams attest to damage from several fires, and in the early twentieth 
century, two floors were raised to accommodate subway construction. Since 1881, the struc- 
ture has been maintained by the Bostonian Society as a museum of Boston history. 

In 1 987, the city and the National Park Service decided the landmark needed a major 
restoration. But in a building with many lives, what is the appropriate restoration strategy and 
to what extent can contemporary technology and accessibility standards be introduced? 
Responses to these questions came from a team of specialists who determined the best 
approach would: 1 .) maintain the overall integrity of the original design, 2.) enhance the cur- 
rent use of Old State House as a museum, and 3.) subtly acknowledge the building's rich his- 
tory. To these ends, brick and woodwork as well as the decorative Royal Lion and Unicorn 
symbols were restored, air conditioning and a sprinkler system were unobtrusively installed, 
lifts were incorporated to provide first-floor occess for wheelchair-bound visitors, an 1 830s 
clock was remounted on the facade, and interiors were refurbished to demonstrate how, over 
the past 1 10 years, the colonial rooms had been "restored" in three very different ways. It 
was a complex job handled with sophistication and good judgment, respecting the past and 
providing for the future. Thus, as the Old State House completes three centuries of service, it 
remains an example of living architecture. 


Department of the Interior, National Park Service; Denver Service Center, the North Atlantic Region 
and the Boston National Historical Park 

Goody, Clancy and Associates, Inc. 

The City of Boston 

The Bostonian Society 

A.J. Martini, Inc. 


Spreckels Temple of Music 

San Francisco, California 

In a few years, people will be making plans to celebrate the centennial of the Spreckels 
Temple of Music as an elegant Beaux Arts backdrop for outdoor music performances and 
civic events in Golden Gate Park. Not all that long ago, however, if wasn't certain that 
would be the case. Designed in 1 899, this home for Opera in the Park and Sunday Band 
Concerts was damaged during the 1 906 earthquake and repaired, and then damaged again 
in the 1989 Loma Prieta quake. After this last disaster, it was fenced off and went unused for 
more than four years. There was concern the brick and terra-cotta band shell would not sur- 
vive another seismic jolt, and pairs of columns — which in plan extended more than 50 feet to 
either side of the stage — shifted noticeably from their original positions. 

In 1 990, a combination of federal and local funds became available to repair and stabilize 
the Temple. But there was a dilemma: should the sandstone columns, which needed to have 
their cores drilled and strengthened with reinforced concrete, be dismantled and rebuilt, or 
should this work be implemented in place. The columns also needed re-plumbing and re-cen- 
tering as they had shifted. After significant debate, the latter, preservation-sensitive approach 
was chosen, and the contractor completed the upgrade without causing further damage. 
Other improvements also were executed, including reinforcing the dome of the band shell, 
adding a new roof slab and refurbishing details of the building. 

On July 3, 1994, Spreckels Temple of Music once again re-opened. Visibly, the exterior has 
not changed. But within, a new structural skeleton provides assurance that people will be 
enjoying this civic landmark as it gracefully crosses the threshold into the twenty-first century. 


Federal Emergency Management Agency, Region IX 

The City and County of San Francisco Bureau of Architecture 


Carey & Company 

Wiss Janney Elstner Associates 

Page and Turnbull 




60K Loader Cab Intterior 

Organizing and positioning more than 1 00 interface items, the 60K Loader Cab Interior 
meets the needs of a variety of operators in a tightly restricted workspace. The 60K, an air- 
craft loader built for the U.S. Air Force, requires an ergonomic cab space that supports safety, 
comfort and ease of use, while working within the restrictions of a predetermined cab size. By 
adopting a participatory process, the design team met the needs of both the user and 
manufacturer from the very beginning of the project. 

Because the cab interior was developed during the Persian Gulf War, the designers were 
forced to work with limited time in the field and limited access to users. Team members used 
interviews, photographs and videotapes to assess the problems with current aircraft loading 

While the aircraft loader hod been designed to operate like a truck, with the user looking out 
the front window, the design team discovered that users spent more than 70 percent of their 
time looking out the right side window. 

Developing an ergonomic model where all the components could be adjusted, the designers 
were able to produce a preliminary solution which accounted for problems such as visibility. 
Because all the controls were adjustable within this model, input from both engineers and user- 
advocates could be accounted for immediately. Moving from the preliminary model to full 
scale CAD drawings, the design team then incorporated input from the vendor who would 
manufacture the cab. 

The innovative product development process allowed input from users, designers, engineers 
and manufactures to be incorporated into the 60K Loader Cab Interior with a significant 
reduction in development costs. Because re-configurations were not limited during the design 
phase, the team was able to produce a superior product which effectively and economically 
meets the needs of the Air Force. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Air Force, System Program Management 
Fitch, Inc. 
Teledyne Brown 


Amtrak AMD-1 03 Passenger Diesel Locomotive 

The first locomotive specifically designed for possenger service in over 40 years, the Amtrak 
AMD-103 Passenger Diesel Locomotive incorporates nev^^ safety, modeling and environmental 
and operating features. Because the locomotive meets maximum weight allowances and 
universal clearances, it can operate on any route of the Amtrak notional railway system. 

Using a lightweight, streamlined aerodynamic car body, the locomotive can reach a maximum 
speed of 103 mile per hour. Integrating the fuel storage tanks within a new structural system, 
the designers removed five tons of dead load and raised the height for the tanks from eight 
inches above the rail to 21 inches above the rail. By using the structural beams as walls, the 
thickness of the fuel tanks was increased threefold. 

The design process included extensive user consultation. Officials within the Federal Railway 
Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Association of American 
Railroads, the Transportation Research Board, and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 
were all consulted to review the design for operating comfort, visibility, crashworthiness, and 
occupational safety. 

With the diesel engine's new design and a 33 percent increase in horsepower, the Amtrak 
AMD-103 Passenger Diesel Locomotive has had an average 20 percent savings in fuel con- 
sumption. As fuel costs contribute significantly to the cost of Amtrak service, the locomotive 
ploys a significant role in reducing the growth rate of Amtrok's federal operating grant. 


Department of Tranportation, Federal Railroad Administration 

National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Office of Engineering/Mechanical Services 

General Electric Transportation Systems 


Backpack Personal Cooung System 

The Backpack Personal Cooling System, a lighhA'eighf, form fitting and low profile unit demon- 
strafes the results of a unique partnership between the design community and the federal gov" 
ernment. Using technologies developed for race car drivers, the cooling system was designed 
for soldiers using chemical weapon ensembles in the Persian Gulf. This new design, in turn, is 
being considered for several civilian applications. 

Working with the project's program manager, the design team surveyed previous cooling sys- 
tem designs and field test data. Knowledge of problems in earlier projects let the design team 
incorporate new concepts, like mobile modularity, into the backpack. Rather than having to 
return to a repair station, the modular design incorporated into the cooling system allows the 
user to remove the battery or the refrigeration section without tools in as little as 10 seconds. 

The project fulfills two important goals for the Department of Defense. First, the Backpack 
Personal Cooling System contributes to the department's development of the most technologi- 
cally enhanced soldier in the world. Conflicts, such as the Persian Gulf War, where the threat 
of chemical weapons existed, make this kind of enhancement essential. Second, the project is 
aligned with government programs intended to move Department of Defense technologies to 
the commercial sector. 


The Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center 
and the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command 

Carlson Technology Incorporated 




Exhibition Design at the National Gallery of Art: A Selection 
Washington, DC 

The deparfmenf of Design and Installation at the National Gallery of Art designs and installs 
from fifteen to twenty-five major special exhibitions each year. The nine exhibitions submitted, 
dating from the years 1991-1994, were selected to represent the range, diversity and quality 
of installations achieved. Over the past twenty-five years the department has designed over 
300 exhibitions and through its innovative achievement has been recognized as one of the 
world leaders in museum installation design. 

Museum policy mandates that each exhibition be experienced in a setting appropriate to the 
aesthetic, art historical, and architectural approach to installation design. The results of this 
approach are as varied as the themes of the exhibitions and the works of art they contain. 
Using the extraordinarily flexible spaces in both the modern I.M. Pei East Building and the 
neo-classical John Russell Pope West Building, the designs and their educational dimension 
engage the visitor in a dialogue between objects and ideas. The visitor moves through 
spaces that are specially detailed to reflect the concepts of the exhibition. 

Many of the exhibitions represented in this selection used innovative lighting technology such 
as fiber optics, as well as state of the art conservation environments for particularly fragile 
pieces. All exhibitions at the National Gallery are designed for accessibility to the widest 
possible public, with special attention given to pedestal heights, label sizes, and adequate 
lighting. Given the current economic climate, efficiencies in building techniques as well as the 
recycling of cases and architectural elements has become an integral part of the design pro- 
cess. Incorporating economy, technology, accessibility and a strong underlying didactic 
theme has placed exhibition design at the National Gallery of Art in the forefront of its field. 


National Gallery of Art, Design Department 


Freer Gallery of Art: Restorahon and Reinstallation 
Washington, DC 

The Freer Gollery of Art, known for its fine collection of Asian and American art, had not 
undergone any major renovations since its opening in 1923. In the intervening years, the 
building's systems and general appearance had slowly deteriorated, and curatorial, technical 
and visitor requirements had changed significantly. To address these problems comprehensive- 
ly, the museum was closed to the public in 1988 in order to update the systems, refurbish 
25,000 square feet of public space, and reinstall all 20 galleries of exhibits. 

The objective was to maintain the character and spatial qualities of the Italian Renaissance- 
style structure while creating a truly modern facility. Plaster walls were removed and replaced 
with more durable and easily repaired materials. The building's 1 ,550 skylight units were 
redone with glazing that reduced harmful emissions and minimized seasonal changes in illumi- 
nation. Spotlights were installed to emphasize individual works of art. 

Another major facet of the project was to develop an exhibition case that was both more 
secure and easily accessible. The result — which has attracted the interest of curators from 
around the world — is a beautifully crafted walnut cabinet base built around an aluminum 
frame with dust-proof glass tops that are raised and lowered on treaded stainless steel sup- 
ports. Other refinements to the interior include new corridor lighting fixtures that show off the 
vaulting of the hallways, a graphic design strategy that covers everything from signage to 
brochure panels, a revised gallery color scheme, and the restoration of the museum's court- 
yard and landscaping to the design originally proposed. Overall, the modifications might be 
characterized as subtle but important improvements. They came in under budget, and since 
the Freer reopened in 1 993, have helped to improve the reputation of the gallery and attract 
almost double the number of visitors. 


Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Office of Design 
and Construction 


Nahonal Postal Museum 
Washingfon, DC 

If the idea of a postal museum conjures up images of tweezers and magnifying glasses, be 
prepared for a surprise. This lively gallery is located in the atrium of a landmark building that 
has been renovated for use as 850,000 square feet of prime federal office space. The street 
entrance moves through a grand Beaux Arts lobby and down escalators to a courtyard occu- 
pied by a horse-drawn carriage, a railroad mail car, and a couple of suspended airplanes. 
Visitors can actually use the full-service post office that is part of the design, research a particu- 
lar question in the library and special collections area, or wander through exhibits ranging 
from "Moving the Mail" to "Customers and Communities" to "Stamps and Stories." 

All around are architectural elements that recall materials and systems related to the post office. 
The ceiling over the escalators is embossed with graphics and perforations that mimic a sheet 
of stamps. Metal frames and trusses refer to gallery catwalks above sorting rooms and the 
conveyor systems used to move mail. Railings are detailed as cancelation marks. In addition, 
there is an abundance of historic photos, postal artwork and post office paraphernalia. 

The merit of this scheme, however, goes beyond the quality of the museum itself. Here is a 
gallery — a part of the prestigious Smithsonian Institution — that, because of its location in a 
major office biulding, becomes an integral part of everyday life. The exhibits contribute a 
unique dynamic to a traditional building program. This is a museum people can actually enjoy 
on their way to work. Clearly, we could use more of this kind of design investment. 


United States Postal Service, National Postal Museum 

Smithsonian Institution, National Postal Museum 

Mines Interests Limited Partnership 

Florance Eichbaum Esocoff King Architects 

Miles Fridberg Molinaroli 


Washington Monument Entry Level Lobby Renovahon 
Washington, DC 

In design, little things really do mean a lot. Looking at size and budget alone, the 
Washington Monument Entry Level Lobby Renovation is quite modest. In terms of impact, how- 
ever, this restoration/interior project greatly enhances the character and quality of one of the 
nation's most familiar landmarks. The commission was to develop the Washington 
Monument's entry lobby — an area which had been modified at various times since opening in 
1 888 — in a way that was more respectful of the historic and symbolic significance of the 

At the East Portal and West Chamber, hung ceilings and marble wainscotting were removed 
to reveal the full height and original dressed marble walls of these impressive spaces. Then, 
blending art and architecture, the West Chamber was used as the setting for a life size 
bronze statue of George Washington. In the South Corridor waiting room, the 1904 marble 
details were cleaned, new light fixtures installed, and the walls adorned with bronze garlands 
in a motif recalling designs from Mount Vernon. Finally, an Egyptian-styled limestone surround 
as well as bronze doors and a bronze relief sculpture were used to distinguish the elevator as 
a monumental gateway. The overall effect is a processional with sense of awe and quiet rev- 
erence that makes a lasting first impression as the entry to this treasured monument. 

Innovative historical research was done to evaluate the feosibility of oil these changes. Fiber 
optic coble and o video camera were used to get a "picture" of the space behind various 
material layers to determine the condition of finishes and how to remove them, and make sure 
modifications would in no way compromise the integrity of the structure. 


Department of the Interior, Notional Pork Service, Division of Exhibits, Harpers Ferry Center 
Hotter + Associates, PC 
Skylight Studios, Inc. 



Arizona Interstate Rest Area Program 

Recognizing fhaf the rest areas along Arizona's interstate highways had reached the end of 
their life cycle of providing safe, comfortable and relaxing settings for travelers, the Arizona 
Department of Transportation saw an opportunity to develop rest areas that would be attrac- 
tive, safe and informative. They invited a team of landscape architects, artists, architects, 
engineers, and tourism experts to create unique, user-friendly sites. 

Several principles guided the designers: the rest areas should serve as "tourism ambassadors" 
of the state; traveler safety and security were paramount concerns; and minimizing the costs of 
maintenance and opportunities for vandalism was crucial. 

Individual rest stop designs draw upon the remote desert landscape and provide opportunities 
to demonstrate innovative approaches to sustainable and responsible design, such as passive 
cooling systems and arid site landscaping. The remote locations also mode traveler safety a 
prime concern. Care was taken to ensure that bathrooms were visible from the parking areas, 
as well as to the highway patrol. 

Information displays and welcome centers allow the traveler to learn more about the area and 
make plans to visit attractions, improving the state's tourism. Recent traveler polls at the new 
rest areas confirm that they have achieved a unique balance incorporating aesthetic appeal, 
functional practicality and environmental sensitivity. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Region 9 

Arizona Department of Transportation, Roadside Development Section 

Cello Barr Associates 

Charles Robert Schiffner Architects Ltd. 


DoRST Campground 

Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park, California 

The reconstruction of this 1930's campground end picnic orea to contemporary camping 
styles was accomplished economically and with great sensitivity to this historic place. Built by 
the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression, Dorst Campground was rebuilt 
to mitigate the impact of development from the park's Greet Forest, protecting the treasured 
giant Sequoia trees. The number of campsites was increased by 80, to a total of 240, with 
nearly half of the sites reserved for recreation vehicles. Despite this enormous growth, the site 
does not feel crowded due to carefully placed native stone retaining walls. Dorst designers 
decided to separate the three distinct camping styles: recreational vehicles, tent campers, and 
walk-in campers. The more primitive areas are situated away from vehicular traffic. 

Natural materials were used in a functional and aesthetic manner. Circulation was improved 
to reduce vehicle impacts on vegetation and camps. Details and the alignment of new roads 
enhance drainage and the visual quality of the roadscape. A new bridge of rustic design 
recalls an earlier time when only natural materials were used in remote parks out of necessity. 

Site impacts by campers were reduced by paving vehicle routes and containing troffic where 
necessary with stone curbing. Since the integrity of the natural vegetation was a major con- 
cern, erosion control blankets were used on slopes and drainage courses rather than seeding 
with commercial grasses. 

Members of the design team, all of who were experienced campers, ably demonstrated their 
appreciation for the past, knowledge of campers aesthetic and physical needs, and technical 
virtuosity in this project. The project demonstrates that the National Park Service can upgrade 
the function and utility of existing pork facilities for a growing population without losing the 
qualities that made this environments memorable for previous generations. 


Department of the Interior, Notional Park Service, Denver Service Center, and the Sequoia/Kings 
Canyon National Pork 

Department of Transportation, Federal FHighway Administration 


Enid A. Haupt Garden 
Washington, DC 

The Smithsonion Institution's Enid A. Haupt garden ties together three disparate historic land- 
mark buildings - the Smithsonian Castle, the Victorian Arts and Industries Building, and the 
neo-classical Freer Gallery of Art. All are linked by a 4.2 acre site, which also includes the 
entrance pavilions to the underground quadrangle complex housing the Arthur AA. Sackler 
Gallery of Asian Art, the National Museum of African Art, and the S. Dillon Ripley Center. 
The design creates a composition of delightful garden rooms, each with a distinct image and 
character. Together, they combine to form a sophisticated public garden that is intimately 
scaled and well detailed, in the tradition of grand estate gardens of America and Europe. 

Formerly a parking lot, the garden achieves a remarkable reconciliation of opposing and con- 
flicting elements through a unifying theme of symmetry, balance, texture, and proportion. The 
plantings in each area reflect the different typological origins of the garden rooms — a brick- 
walked Victorian Garden leading from the street to the Castle; a peaceful Oriental garden 
with moon gates and circular island by the Sackler; and a lively Islamic garden with bubbling 
fountains adjacent to the African Art museum. 

Utilitarian structures scattered around the site, including stair towers, large skylights, exhaust 
vents and a loading dock, are unseen to visitors, due to the carefully arranged plantings and 
garden walls. 

The Haupt garden exemplifies the capacity of landscape architecture to connect and enhance 
disparate visual elements through unifying forms and elements. 


General Services Administration, National Capital Region 

Smithsonian institution. Office of Design and Construction 

Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott 

Sasaki Associates 


HiRSHHORN Museum Plaza 
Washington, DC 

Working with a complex site that had become badly worn and had never successfully 
addressed its monumental centerpiece, Gordon Bunshaft's 1 974 circular museum, landscape 
architect James Urban created an oasis. The 2.7 acre plaza is now not only technically more 
functional but also a pleasant shady spot for weary visitors to contemplate the museum's 
renowned sculpture collection. 

With a clear sense of respect for the integrity of the original design. Urban retained the sym- 
metry of the site, including Bunshaft's circular fountain in the plaza's center, and the focus on 
geometry. Key to the success of the design was the decision to add greenery to the outside 
quadrants. Areas of planting and low walls subdivide spaces into smaller units to create 
"rooms" for the sculpture, representing a total shift in the concept of how visitors use the space. 
These garden areas are defined by rows of trees, lawns, gentle slopes, benches and granite 
rises that also provide seating. 

The plaza actually serves as the roof for the museum's lower level. The structural, mechanical, 
waterproofing, drainage and grading work were crucial to the performance of the building, 
and all the more impressive since the improvements remain invisible to plaza users. A granite 
paved walkway circumnavigates the site, making the sculptures accessible to visitors in 

The Hirshhorn plaza gracefully and sensitively relates with the museum while immensely 
improving the relationship between visitors and the monumental building through the addition 
of a mid-scale of trees and greenery. 


Smithsonian Institution, Office of Design and Construction and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 



Interstate 90 Completion Projeo 
Seattle, Washington 

The Interstate 90 Completion Project demonstrates that through careful planning and creative 
application of landscape design, a highway can knit communities together rather than tear 
them apart. The seven-mile multi-modal transportation corridor includes 200 acres of park and 
roadside development, 1 2 miles of bicycle/ pedestrian trails, 3 1 acres of landscape develop- 
ment on lid structures, and four acres of new wetlands in three urban communities. 

The old 1-90 freeway separated communities with a broad expanse of pavement, noise and 
vehicular pollution. Now, the communities have been physically and emotionally reconnected 
by lowering the roadway to reduce its visual and noise impact by using wide, landscaped 
bridge structures and lids to cover the freeway with park space. The new open spaces creat- 
ed by the lids and bridges now contain parks, tennis courts and ball fields that literally bring 
the residents together. 

The project is the result of vision, perseverance and design excellence by landscape archi- 
tects, artists, civil and structural engineers, and countless citizens and public leaders who were 
involved in more than 30 years of planning, design and implementation. 

Technical excellence is demonstrated in the innovative use of the lid structures, which crown 
the lowered highway. The lids greatly reduce the traffic noise, and cover the visual impact. 
Key issues for transforming the lids into parks included soil depth and type and structural limita- 
tions. Irrigation systems were designed to provide plants with moisture during summer 
droughts, and an innovative computer system automatically adjusts watering frequencies. 

Aesthetic excellence also abounds. The planners coordinated features, such as wall configu- 
rations and treatments, signage and illumination, to ensure consistence and continuity through- 
out the corridor. Wide landscaped medians and planting pockets within the lowered road- 
way provide delineation of traffic and tie the project to the surrounding environment. 
Viewpoints were created of the floating bridges. Lake Washington and the Cascade 
Mountains. Plantings of Japanese Maple, Black Pine Dwarf Winged Euonymous and English 
Ivy create an attractive, low-maintenance landscape. 

In summary, the Interstate 90 Completion Project successfully provides creative solutions to 
multiple design issues. It mokes and maintains pedestrian connections between existing neigh- 
borhoods and is a model for collaboration and coordination of an extremely large and com- 
plex project. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington Division 

Washington State Department of Transportation 

Al Mathews Corporation (continued next page) 


Arnold & Arnold Associates 

Alpha Engineering Group 

Burke Associates 


Converse Consultants 

Entranco Engineers 

Figg and Muller Engineers, Inc. 


HDR Engineering, Inc. 

HNTB Corporation 

H. W. Lochner, Inc. 

Hart Crowser & Associates 


KPFF Consulting Engineer 

KCM Incorporated 

Morrison-Knudsen Engineers 

N.G. Jacobson & Associates 

Systems Architects-Engineers 

Sverdrup Corporation 

TAMS Consutants, Inc. 

Tudor Engineering, Co. 

URS Company 

Wilsey & Ham Pacific 

Lee, Kobayashi & Burke 

Jones & Jones Architects and Landscape Architects 

Olympia Associates Company 


Kenilworth Marsh Restoration 
Washington, DC 

Kenilworth Marsh is the last remaining freshwater tidal wetland in the District of Columbia. 
Massive urban development, storm water runoff, sedimentation and years of neglect had 
reduced the once expansive marsh to barren flats at low tide. It was clear that the marsh 
needed to be restored and kept navigable, while transforming the mud flats into functioning 

Restoration of the marsh was facilitated thanks to an unusual degree of inter-governmental 
cooperation between the National Park Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Army 
Corps of Engineers, the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, and the District of 
Columbia Department of Public Works. 

Wetlands form an integral part of the watershed's self-cleansing system. They serve as biolog- 
ical filters for the silt, nutrients, and pollutants that wash down from thousands of sources. In 
addition they help reduce riverbank erosion and flood damage; improve water quality; and 
provide essential habitat for fish and wildlife. One measure of the success of this project is 
the dramatic increase in marsh flora and fauna. Before the restoration, you could count the 
number of snowy egrets on one hand, today they number close to 1 00. 

A major innovation was the first application in the nation of water tubes and straw bales to 
contain the dredged material. Such appropriate low-technology solutions kept the costs low 
and avoided the use of heavy equipment that might disturb the habitat. Canals were cut into 
the restored marsh to enhance tidal water flow and to allow canoe passage into the area. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District 

Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments 

Biohabitats, Inc. 

Cottrell Engineering Corporation 

Chris Athanas & Associates, Inc. 


Loess Hills Scenic Byway 
Western Iowa 

The Loess Hills region of Western Iowa is a unique geologic landform comprising 640,000 
ceres and spanning seven counties. What began as a local attempt to boost tourism and 
economic development in the region turned into a nationally significant program that involved 
hundreds of volunteers from the area and led to tremendous tangible and intangible results. 
The former is demonstrated by a nearly 250 percent increase in tourism, and the development 
of o new organization — The Loess Hills Alliance — to preserve and protect the future of the 
region. The latter is best characterized by the new-found pride residents have discovered 
thanks to their role in surveying and researching the area. 

The project literally began from scratch, since the state did not have a scenic byways pro- 
gram. Staff from the USDA's Soil Conservation Service created a program that relied heavily 
on local residents. They developed an innovative scenic route selection process specifically 
tailored to rural Iowa. It employed techniques, such as visual resource inventories, overlay 
mapping and public polling, as well as computer visual simulation. Volunteers were trained to 
collect data on potential routes. Services were inventoried along these routes, os well, to 
determine the suitability to serve visitors. 

During the project, more than 140 volunteers logged over 1 100 hours and hundreds of miles 
on their own vehicles. Fresh from their new-found appreciation for their landscape, residents 
undertook a large scale landscape resource study that inventoried the natural, cultural and his- 
toric resources of the entire area. 

What results is a model program to establish scenic byways based on citizen involvement. 
Through the strong participation of volunteers throughout the process, the project ensured that 
residents would be the best ambassadors for their land, setting the stage for implementation 
and management of the region's future planning and design. 


Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Iowa State Office and the 
Midwest National Technical Center 

National Endowment for the Arts, Design Program 

Golden Hills Resource Conservation and Development 


Sekhnel Bridge 

Yosemite Nafional Park, CA 

Tastefully restrained, defines the design approach to this functional, unobtrusive bridge. This 
structure enhances its setting and introduces an attractive man-made element that interacts with 
the spectacular views in the Yosemite Valley. Sentinel Bridge spans the Merced River with a 
shallow post-tensioned concrete arch, a form that offers reflections uninterrupted by piers, 
which further adds to the surrounding mountains and dignifies the sense of crossing. Granite 
facing echoes the natural materials of the mountains. 

The parking area is partially screened from the road. Large granite boulders located through- 
out the area help direct pedestrian traffic and provide seating while visitors wait for the shuttle 

The approaches and parking areas are integral parts of the design. Whether on foot, horse- 
back, bicycle or automobile, the traveler can conveniently cross over the river, reveling in one 
of the grandest views of Half Dome. The design of the bridge successfully solves the problem 
of functional crossing and special viewing place. In particular, the extra-wide sidewalks on 
either side of the bridge enable photographers, pedestrians, and wheel-chair users to reflect 
on the natural beauty of the site without impeding the passage of others. 

The National Park Service has recognized that design excellence of functional structures can 
accentuate the experience of the park for visitors. 


Department of the Interior, Notional Park Service, Denver Service Center 

Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration 


Sepulveda Basin, Lake Balboa Park and Wildufe Area 
Los Angeles, CA 

Created in 1 94 1 by the Army Corps of Engineers for Los Angeles County flood control, the 
Sepulveda Dam and Reservoir have by necessity taken on many other functions as the region's 
population soared in the post-war years. Approximately two-thirds of the 2, 100-acre site are 
leased to the city Department of Recreation and Parks, which maintains its parks, golf course 
and playfields. The now urbanized valley supports a population of about 1 .5 million with 
little access to open space. 

This project has sensitively balanced the needs of an urban populace for recreation facilities 
with a wildlife habitat. The wildlife area, with its large pond, oak woodland, and native 
grasslands, is habitat for more than 200 varieties of local and migratory birds. Trails around 
the lake offer viewing blinds and open benches for viewing the migratory water fowl in and 
around the pond. Incorporation of native plant materials combined with innovative water han- 
dling treatment strategies has resulted in increased numbers and varieties of wildlife. In addi- 
tion to creating a wildlife sanctuary, the project established an experiential learning environ- 
ment for visitors. 

A result of a partnership between city and county agencies with the Army Corps, Lake Balboa 
Park and Wildlife Area has greatly enhanced the community's enjoyment without sacrificing its 
ecological purpose. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District 

Brockmeier Consulting Engineers, Inc. 



Augusta Canal Master Plan 
Augusta, GA 

The Augusta Canal system winds its way through a wilderness corridor, developing three sepa- 
rate branches that traverse historic neighborhoods and urban landscapes, before flowing back 
into the Savannah River next to Augusta's historic but struggling downtown. Mandated by the 
National Park Service and the U.S. Department of Transportation, the master plan identifies 
actions to preserve and interpret the historic but endangered canal and its related resources. 

The process to create the master plan proved a catalyst for the entire city of Augusta, bringing 
together previously divisive factions with the unified vision of a revitalized community. At the 
outset of the study, there was significant polarization and mistrust among the conservationists, 
private developers, and public agencies with plans connected to the canal's future. Moving 
from confrontation to consensus building was a major defining aspect of the plan. 

The planning process made the citizens and the leaders of Augusta aware of the central role 
that they would have to play in the implementation of the plan. Using the city's heritage to 
create a strong vision for the future, the plan became the vehicle for demonstrating that today's 
Augusta residents could create a third life for their city through the canal, just as their forefa- 
thers did in the 1 840s, when the canal was conceived as a transportation corridor, and 
again in the 1 870s, when the canal was enlarged to accommodate post-Civil War 

Through cooperative effort and shared vision, residents now gain new amenities and revital- 
ization of their neighborhoods; preservationists see historic structures and settings saved 
through reuse; conservationists secure critical natural settings; educators get new teaching envi- 
ronments; a wide range of recreation opportunities is opened up; and property owners realize 
increased value. 


Department of the Interior, National Park Service/SERO 

CityDesign Collaborative, Inc. 

The Augusta Canal Authority 

The Office of Thomas J. Martin 

Peter H. Hand Associates, Inc. 

W. R. Toole Engineers, Inc. 


Bi-State Developmemt Agency/ Arts in Transit 
St. Louis, MO 

Arts in Transit was established to create the design for St. Louis's new 1 8-mile light rail 
system. In the process, they created opportunities for neighborhood involvement and econom- 
ic development, while reducing traffic congestion. 

A team of six visual artists were brought in to work with Metro Link's architects and engineers 
fo design the infrastructure of the system. What results is an innovative public works project 
as well as a collaborative work of public art. 

The teams' objective was not simply to decorate spaces but to develop a comprehensive and 
coherent system that would be visually appealing within the existing construction budget. 
Design criteria included: development from what is native and characteristic of St. Louis; com- 
position of a set of related components; and a sense of dynamism characterized by change- 
able elements. Solutions include unique bridge piers, unconventional passenger shelters for 
outdoor stations, underground tunnel stations that maintain the character of the historic space, 
and preservation of original architectural remnants. Stations share design qualities such as the 
curve inspired by the river and arch forms. 

Built along a railroad right-of-way, MetroLink is the first light rail system to extensively reuse 
existing infrastructure as an integral port of its design. It trovels through historic, industrial, res- 
idential and commercial neighborhoods, and even runs across the Mississippi using the his- 
toric Ads Bridge. The LaClede's Landing Station incorporates old brick walls whose arched 
windows were opened to allow views of the Gateway Arch and the Mississippi River. 


Department of Tranportation, Federal Transit Administration, Region VII 

National Endowment for the Arts, Visual Arts Program 

Bi-State Development Agency 

Arts in Transit 

Sverdrup Corporation 

Kennedy/ Associates/Architects, Inc. 

Booker Associates, Inc. 

Kuhlmann Design Group 

Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. 

LS Transit Systems, Inc. 

Todd Williams and Billie Tsien 

Austin Too and Associates 


Fort Belvoir Master Plan 
Fori Belvoir, VA 

Forf Beivoir's mission has changed substantially in recent years. What started as an engineer 
training center has evolved into a regional, multi-mission center for the U. S. Army The Master 
Plan was undertaken to assist in adjusting the fort's mission to match its new, broader purpose. 

Located on the Potomac River, in a rapidly growing area outside Washington, DC, Fort 
Belvoir is the largest single tract of land controlled by a single owner in Fairfax County. 
Careful attention was paid to incorporating the participation of the wide range of entities 
affected by the plan. These included Fort Belvoir residents, military officials, two county and 
one city governments, as well as the area's commuter rail personnel. Interviews and charrettes 
were conducted to address environmental, utility, commercial, transportation, and quality of 
life issues. The resulting plan identified eight separate missions: military, administration logis- 
tics, recreation, education, housing, community, and environmental stewardship. 

Among the unique issues addressed by the plan was preservation of the historic view corridor 
from George Washington's home, Mt. Vernon. The plan also carefully planned for environ- 
mental issues related to the Chesapeake Bay. Environmental overlays and other constraint 
analyses were digitized over up-to-date existing base mapping, providing efficient visualiza- 
tion and handling of large quantities of diverse information. 

The plan received unanimous approval to implement its master plan, giving the post clear 
guidelines for its land use, including traffic ond utility programs for the next 20 years. The 
Fort Belvoir Long Range Plan is a model for military planning. Its exemplary level of participa- 
tion coupled with its comprehensiveness present a logical course of action to manage the 
development of land, facilities, resources and infrastructure for this and other complex military 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District and the Forf Belvoir 
Directorate of Public Works 

Woolpert Consultants, Alexandria 

Woolpert Consultants, Charlotte 

Woolpert Consultants, Dayton 


Historic Family Quarters Preservation Program 
U.S. Army Military District of Washington, DC 

Since a large number of this nation's military bases were established before World War I, 
they contain a vast number and type of historic structures. Base historic housing is often seen 
as a nuisance because of higher upkeep costs, demanding technical problems, and required 
compliance procedures. It was the high cost of maintaining these structures that led the 
Department of Defense to develop the Historic Family Quarters Preservation Program. This 
comprehensive management program for the maintenance and repair of historic military family 
quarters is recognized for achievement in balancing historic preservation goals with the ongo- 
ing functional needs of housing for Army personnel. 

As one of the earliest preservation initiatives of the Defense Department, this effort provides a 
model for guidelines that preserve the historical resources of military installations. Using three 
locations within the Military District of Washington as a model, a task force developed a set 
of stewardship standards of exterior and interior treatments that comply with the Secretary of 
Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. Further, they produced a set of guidebooks providing 
direction on the repair or replacement of specific components, from lighting fixtures to roofing. 
Since most historic Army housing was built from standardized plans, many identical quarters 
exist in vast quantities nationwide, making the guidebooks applicable to at least 48 installa 
tions with the same buildings. 

Another critical component of the program was the development of a Maintenance 
Management Plan for the quarters. It prioritizes maintenance tasks and recommends preven- 
tive maintenance, extending the useful life of building materials and reducing the possibility of 
sudden system failures. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Military District of Washington 
Honbury Evans Newill Vlattas & Company 


Nahonal Law Enforcement Officers Memorial 
Washington, DC 

Graceful and elegant are the words most often used to describe the National Law 
Enforcement Officers Memorial in Washington, DC. Located in Judiciary Square, the 
memorial is surrounded by large historic buildings. Rather than competing with the massive 
Italian Renaissance style National Building Museum or the classical judicial buildings, if cre- 
ates unity and context where once there was none. 

Unlike most memorials, which commemorate specific events or persons, this is an on-going 
memorial, and was created to honor future, as well as past, fallen officers. Their names are 
inscribed on gently curving low stone walls that envelop the square. Befitting a living memori- 
al, the site is also a park, complete with pergolas, benches, reflecting pool, and a variety of 
seasonal and perennial plantings. The memorial is free from heavy architectural structures, 
which might intrude upon the sight lines and compete with the buildings that so beautifully 
frame the space. 

The site is all the more remarkable when one considers its sorry past. For years the square 
was synonymous with neglect. Parked cars and Metro escalators and elevators made the 
location ugly. The location over a Metro station required that the design integrate those exist- 
ing structures. The elevators were incorporated into the pergola, and the air relief vents were 
repositioned within the landscaped lawn areas. 

Working with six federal and eight local agencies and review bodies, architect Davis Buckley 
successfully navigated the maze of reviews and approvals required for Washington memorials. 
The resulting design contains a number of innovative features. For example, the pergola struc- 
tures were designed with acute angles on the upper bars to deter roosting pigeons. 
Innovative soil stabilization methods included building a soil cement mat over the existing 
Metro tunnel. 

This is a wonderful example of how neglected urban spaces can and should be used for civic 


Department of the Interior, National Park Sevice, National Capital Region 

Davis Buckley, Architects and Planners 

National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund 


Peterson Air Force Base Comprehensive Plan 
Peterson Air Force Base, CO 

Located in the rapidly growing area outside Colorado Springs, Peterson Air Force base occu- 
pies 1,278 acres and is home to the U.S. Space Command and Air Force Space Command. 
The comprehensive plan was undertaken to establish a baseline planning document that would 
guide the facility as it coped with its on-going growth and prepared for the future. 

Faced with a tight deadline since earlier work on a plan had been stopped, the developers of 
the new plan established an in-house management team that provided a flexible process for 
managing the base's growth and development, and integrated planning efforts with surround- 
ing communities. This team-work process was highly successful, providing easier access to 
military and civilian leaders and establishing a broader base of experience and contacts. 

The plan's environmental design guidelines were a pioneering effort for the Air Force. Since 
there were no existing models, Peterson Air Force Base created one. The base was in urgent 
need of this design control tool to bring visual and functional order to its environment, includ- 
ing landscape treatment, signage, lighting, street furnishings and waste management features. 

The use of computer mapping throughout the project was also an unprecedented and innova- 
tive outcome of the planning process, providing a powerful interactive medium on which to 
maintain an up-to-date, living planning document/database. This has been integrated with 
other data sources, leading to safer and more cost effective facility sitings and allowing faster 
identification of natural and man-made constraints. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Air Force, Peterson Air Foce Base, 21st Space Wing, 21sf Support 
Group and 2 1 st Civil Engineer Squadron 

Higginbotham/Briggs & Associates 

Leigh, Scott & Cleary, Inc. 


Presidio General Management Plan 
San Francisco, CA 

Presiding over one of fhe most outstanding vistas in this country, the Presidio is at a turning 
point in its history. The 1995 closure of the military base that has been located on that site 
for 220 years set into motion a major planning effort by the National Park Service, which will 
take over its management. In addition to its magnificent view of the Golden Gate and San 
Francisco Bay, the 1,480 acre area contains an enormous wealth of cultural, natural and 
recreational resources. 

The Presidio planning process has been one of the most open and participatory endeavors 
ever undertaken by the National Park Service. It has involved individuals throughout the 
country and enlisted many groups not traditionally involved in park planning. The planning 
team employed vision workshops, newsletters, concept workbooks and numerous public meet- 
ings as part of the public review process. Among the challenges faced by the planners were 
determining appropriate treatments for the vast number of historic resources contributing to its 
national historic landmark status, transportation planning in an area where traffic congestion is 
already a serious concern, and developing a strategy to meet operational and financial 
challenges of implementation. 

The resulting plan breaks away from traditional park planning, calling for innovative 
approaches to management and prescribing a bold vision for fhe Presidio. The entire site is 
to become a model of sustainability and innovative technology. It will be the setting for 
programs that promote stewardship of global resources, provide youth with skills and commit- 
ment to public service, and explore methods to improve the health of people and the planet. 
In short, it will be a model urban national park for the 2 1 st century. 


Department of the Interior, Notionol Pork Service, Denver Service Center and the Presidio Project 


Redesign of Diggs Town 

Norfolk, VA 

Like many of this country's public housing projects, Diggs Town was plagued with the worst of 
society's problems: unemployment, crime, drugs, and decay. The 1950s-era complex in 
Norfolk, Virginia, leveraged public housing modernization funds from the U.S. Department of 
Housing and Urban Development to transform a "project" into a neighborhood. 

HUD and city government officials worked with the design team and Diggs Town residents to 
create cohesion, bolster safety, and foster a sense of community pride. Principles of 
traditional American urbanism were applied to this distressed complex. Limited funds support- 
ed minimal structural changes, but they had enormous physical and psychological effects on 
the complex and its residents. Front porches were added to the low-rise, multi-fannily units, 
encouraging residents to communicate and get to know each other. Fences secured private 
space, giving residents control over the outdoor areas that had previously been claimed by 
gangs. And new, small-scale streets provide parking, public security and the pride of having 
a "street address." 

Residents also worked with city and federal officials to establish a drug elimination program, 
create over 20 jobs with the project contractor, as well as plan early childhood education 
and recreation programs. In fact, the residents were key to defining the problems ond estab- 
lishing the process that led to the redesign of Diggs Town. "Village meetings" with the design- 
ers and government managers were conducted regularly in resident back yards over six 
months to create the plan. 

The process at Diggs Town demonstrates how the involvement of residents and the application 
of creative design solutions brought together with social programs can make "neighborhoods" 
out of "projects." 


Department of Housing and Urban Development, Virginia State Office 

Norfolk Redevelopment and Housing Authority 

Diggs Town Tenant Management Corporation 

UDA Architects 

CMSS Architects 


River Relocation Projeq 
Providence, Rl 

Moving rivers might appear fo be a Herculean task fo some, but in Providence, Rhode Island, 
city planners have done just that, and, in the process, have knit together the urban fabric of 
their city. Not far from the spot where Roger Williams first stepped ashore in 1636, the 
Woonasquatucket, Moshassuck and Providence Rivers have been reconfigured, creating a 
"Y"-shaped landscaped river corridor at the center of the city, connecting existing parks, 
accommodating both boat traffic and a pedestrian walkway. 

The river-moving is just part of a major urban revitalization plan that includes removing acres 
of roadway decking and interstate access ramps that obscured the rivers, providing naviga- 
tional lanes for small craft, improving pedestrian access; clarifying traffic patterns, and beauti- 
fying what had previously been an eye-sore. Seven distinct new bridges have been designed 
to accommodate vehicles, and five other new bridges are dedicated for pedestrian use. They 
collect and distribute traffic from the core of the city and tie into the interstate system. A four- 
acre park, called Waterplace, ot the western terminus of the new walkway system contains a 
visitor center, an amphitheater, fountain and several small plazas. 

The project's ability to bring aesthetic beauty to a great variety of large and small elements is 
remarkable. The new bridges have been designed with gentle arches that reflect in the water 
and allow small boats to pass through. Pedestrian walkways along the riverbanks have been 
paved with old cobblestones dug up from when on old city street was resurfaced. And large 
granite blocks, salvaged from a demolished railroad viaduct, line the river walls. Even the 
smallest details have been carefully considered for their beauty as well as functionality. In 
addition to the previously mentioned recycled materials, cast iron railing bollards and bronze 
hand rails promise long-term service and low maintenance. 

Public participation has been the hallmark of the design process dating from the initial 1983 
waterfront study that launched the effort. A design advisory committee composed of citizens 
and public agencies participated in the design process on a regular basis. In addition, 
several public workshops and hearings were conducted. 

The River Relocation Project is an ambitious and graceful effort that succeeds in improving the 
city's infrastructure and traffic problems and turning around the image of the waterfront, draw- 
ing business and pedestrians to its amenities and beauty. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Region 1 
Rhode Island Department of Transportation 
William D. Warner, Architects & Planners 
Maguire Group, Inc. 


Staples Street Stahon 
Corpus Christi, TX 

Staples Street Station is in downtown Corpus Christi, Texas, amid the city's municipal com- 
plex. It is also the city's most heavily used bus transfer point. Before the station was built, 
transit passengers were required to rush across busy traffic intersections to make their connec- 
tions at five separate locations and to wait for their buses on congested sidewalks. The new 
station consolidates the stops, allowing passengers to alight from one bus and immediately 
board the next. 

The structure's design is in the Spanish Colonial style, with golden-tan stucco and arches, com- 
plementing the city hall building across the street. The station has a friendly, welcoming feel 
that is enhanced by the cheerful decor. Following a number of citizen and business-leader 
meetings to discuss the development of the station held by the Regional Transit Authority, it 
became clear that residents wanted the station to reflect the community. The local arts center 
created a means for residents to literally make their mark on the new station. The 1,500 
ceramic tiles that grace the station were all designed and painted by residents. 

Since personal safety was a high priority, station designers ensured increased lighting and 
clear line of sight vistas by minimizing obstructions. Customer comfort was accommodated 
with many seating areas, maximum shade, water fountains, and concise information displays. 
The design even includes spaces for street vendors who sell refreshments to transit riders. This 
unique bus station demonstrates the impact of a well-planned outreach effort, enabling the 
design of a friendly, functional, attractive and cost-effective public space that benefits the 
entire city. 


Department of Tranportation, Federal Transit Administration, Region VI 

Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority 

Creative Arts Center 

Projects for Public Space 


Teaching with Historic Places, National Park Service 

Our nation's historic places are invaluable teaching tools, but until recently there was not o 
systematic way for teachers across the country to use them in conjunction with their existing 
lesson plans. Recognizing the potential to provide students with an understanding of the 
nation's cultural diversity and historic traditions, help communities appreciate and protect their 
unique character, and foster stewardship among young people and citizen groups to assist in 
protecting historic resources, Teaching with Historic Places was created jointly by the National 
Park Service's National Register of Historic Places and the National Trust for Historic 

If was clear that lesson plans for teaching with historic places had to be integrated into exist- 
ing course structures, so extensive research was conducted on the various opportunities to add 
a preservation component to existing curricula in subjects such as history, social studies, and 

A team of nationally recognized preservationists and educators recommended development of 
an on-going series of classroom-ready lesson plans; educational kits consisting of several the- 
matically-linked lesson plans, audio-visuol materials, and a teacher guide; and a technical 
assistance kit on how to teach with historic places. Teacher training opportunities are offered 
several times a year to disseminate the program's methodology. 

The lesson plans are based on properties listed on the National Register, using an array of 
maps, readings, visual documents, and activities to develop and strengthen critical and 
analytical thinking skills. At least one activity in every lesson plan leads the students into their 
own community to find and research similar themes and historic places. Teaching with 
Historic Places provides a national model that establishes a mutually beneficial partnership 
between educators and preservationists, making students more aware of their cultural heritage. 


Department of the Interior, Notional Pork Service, National Register of Historic Places/lnferagency 
Resources Division 

National Trust for Historic Preservation 

Daydream Design 


TRADOC Communities of Excellence Program, The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command 
Forf AAonroe, VA 

The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is made up of 18 installa- 
tions and several Army Service Schools whose mission is to provide basic and advanced train- 
ing to officers and enlisted personnel. These installations provide more than just training. 
They are communities, not unlike cities and towns, and have a direct link to the morale, wel- 
fare and sense of well-being of its residents. Recognizing growing disrepair on the bases and 
lack of investment in their surroundings by residents, TRADOC established its Communities of 
Excellence Program to improve the quality of life and urban environments of TRADOC 

The program faced the challenge of integrating community involvement and stewardship prac- 
tices where they were not normally recognized or promoted. The implementation approach 
was designed to reach a broad audience of military personnel and "non-designers." An 
annual training program outlined guidance by which installations prepared for annual evalua- 
tions. Manuals that graphically depict design standards and illustrate various levels of design 
quality were produced for a wide variety of facilities, including transient quarters, commis- 
saries, and outdoor training areas. 

This program has facilitated an awareness of urban planning and identified continuous 
community and quality improvements as an integral aspect of planning on all TRADOC instal- 
lations. The program has raised expectations command-wide and created informed, demand- 
ing and involved citizenry who have become part of a TRADOC community's planning pro- 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, Training and Doctrine Command 

E.L. Hamm and Associates, Inc. 

Williams, Tazewell and Associates, Inc. 


Walnut Street Bridge 
Chattanooga, TN 

Built in 1891, when it was heralded as an engineering marvel, today the Walnut Street 
Bridge is a testament to the citizens of Chattanooga and their commitment to preserving their 
past while creating a vibrant new public space. Deemed unsafe when closed in 1978, the 
bridge faced demolition before concerned city residents stepped in and had it placed on the 
National Register of Historic Places. Popular support grew as plans unfolded to transform the 
bridge info o rather unusual park. 

Today's traffic on the bridge is not motorized. Rather one finds pedestrians, cyclists, readers, 
kite-flyers and roller-skaters, to name a few. The bridge is also fully accessible to the handi- 
capped, with careful attention given to connecting the roadbed and the cantilevered side- 
walks with transitional ramps. Benches and planters, as well as new lighting, now encourage 
recreation and leisure activities. 

With funds from the Federal Highway Administration, the engineering firm developed a post- 
tensioned cable system for the project that has become a model for the restoration of historic 
bridges. Its virtual invisibility has minimal impact on the span's historic character, yet makes it 
stronger than when originally built. In homage to the original bridge, a wooden deck was 
created, and all existing ornamental railings were restored. The firm also used an innovative 
steel grit blasting technique that recycled the grit after separating the toxic lead, saving hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars in landfill costs for contaminated sand blast material. 

Walnut Street Bridge is now a key element in the city's river front revitalization. This project 
not only developed a cost-effective way to give old bridges new life but also physically and 
psychologically connect the city with a resurgent aspect of its culture. 


Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Tennessee Division 

Garnet Chapin Architects 

A. G. Lichtenstein & Associates, Inc. 




The Federal Design Achievment Awards are the National 

Endowment for the Arts' highest awards in design. They 

are presented every four years as a part of the Presidential 

Design Awards, which are administered by the Design 

Program of the National Endowment for the Arts.